The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Imovance     [8-(5-chloropyridin-2-yl)-7- oxo-2,5,8...

Synonyms: Optidorm, Zimovane, Zopicalm, Zorclone, Amovane, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of zopiclone

  • Zopiclone is the first of the cyclopyrrolones, a new class of psychotherapeutic agents possessing a pharmacological profile of high efficacy and low toxicity similar to that of the benzodiazepines [1].
  • Critical factors for pharmacokinetics of zopiclone in the elderly and in patients with liver and renal insufficiency [2].
  • On the basis of these findings, a reduction of the initial zopiclone dose from 7.5 to 3.5 mg/day is recommended for patients with severe liver insufficiency and patients over 70 years of age with liver insufficiency [2].
  • None of the doses of zopiclone (ZPC) influenced uterine and adrenal weights or body weight, but it increased ovarian weight at 10 mg/kg [3].
  • Long-term administration of zopiclone in 6 patients with severe chronic obstructive respiratory insufficiency with stable ventilatory function did not demonstrate any depressant action on respiratory blood gases recorded during the daytime and in ambient air [4].

Psychiatry related information on zopiclone

  • Although the available data on rebound insomnia and dependence liability are encouraging, potential differences between zopiclone and the benzodiazepines in these respects may have little clinical relevance in the context of short term intermittent use of hypnotics, as it currently recommended [5].
  • STUDY OBJECTIVES: To compare residual effects of zaleplon 10 mg, zopiclone 7.5 mg, and placebo, and a social dose of alcohol on car driving, memory, and psychomotor performance [6].
  • Two performance tests (eye-hand coordination test and choice reaction time test) showed a highly significant impairment (p less than 0.01) at 0000 h with 7.5 mg zopiclone; one test (eye-hand coordination test) showed a significant impairment (p less than 0.05) at 0800 h also with 7.5 mg zopiclone and none at 1200 h [7].
  • INTERVENTIONS: Participants received either a manualized treatment package based on cognitive-behavior therapy and sleep management or hypnotic-drug treatment (7.5 mg zopiclone) for 6 weeks (these findings are reported elsewhere) [8].
  • NREM sleep stages 3 and 4 increased significantly after 3.75 mg and 7.5 mg zopiclone (p less than 0.05) [7].

High impact information on zopiclone

  • Incidence of cancer in individuals receiving chronic zopiclone or eszopiclone requires prospective study [9].
  • After photoaffinity labeling with flunitrazepam, receptors in rat cerebellar membranes showed differentially reduced affinity for flunitrazepam and zopiclone by 50- and 3-fold, respectively [10].
  • Rifampin (INN, rifampicin) is a potent inducer of many cytochrome P450 enzymes, and it greatly reduces the plasma concentrations and effects of, for example, midazolam, triazolam, and zopiclone [11].
  • With the beta 2 gamma 2 subtype, the type 1 ligands zolpidem, alpidem, and Cl-218872 showed no or very low levels of potentiation, whereas less selective ligands such as diazepam, zopiclone, U-78098, and U-90167 displayed levels of Cl- current potentiation comparable to those observed with the subtypes containing the alpha 1 and gamma 2 subunits [12].
  • Their geometries, as obtained by X-ray crystallography, are discussed and missing crystal and molecular structures of two of them (zopiclone and CL 218-872) are reported [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of zopiclone


Biological context of zopiclone


Anatomical context of zopiclone


Associations of zopiclone with other chemical compounds


Gene context of zopiclone

  • Cytochrome P-450 3A4 and 2C8 are involved in zopiclone metabolism [26].
  • Recombinant CYP2C8 had the highest enzymatic activity toward zopiclone metabolism into both its metabolites, followed by CYP2C9 and 3A4 [26].
  • CYP3A4 is the major enzyme involved in zopiclone metabolism in vitro, and CYP2C8 contributes significantly to ND-Z formation [26].
  • Triazolam-treated patients presented significantly more day-time-interdose anxiety than zopiclone as assessed by the weekly HARS and Clinical Global Assessment of Anxiety. Although daytime-interdose anxiety was observed with both drugs, this treatment emergent symptom was more frequent and severe with triazolam [31].
  • OBJECTIVE: Zopiclone is a short acting hypnotic, which is metabolised by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and 2C8 in vitro [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of zopiclone


  1. Zopiclone. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy as an hypnotic. Goa, K.L., Heel, R.C. Drugs (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Critical factors for pharmacokinetics of zopiclone in the elderly and in patients with liver and renal insufficiency. Gaillot, J., Le Roux, Y., Houghton, G.W., Dreyfus, J.F. Sleep. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of psychotropic drugs on aldo-keto reductase activity in rat ovary and adrenal gland. Inazu, N., Hayashi, M., Hiura, M., Satoh, T. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Comparative study of the effects of zopiclone and placebo on respiratory function in patients with chronic obstructive respiratory insufficiency. Muir, J.F., DeFouilloy, C., Broussier, P., Locquet, R., Maillard, F. International clinical psychopharmacology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Zopiclone. An update of its pharmacology, clinical efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of insomnia. Noble, S., Langtry, H.D., Lamb, H.M. Drugs (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Differential residual effects of zaleplon and zopiclone on actual driving: a comparison with a low dose of alcohol. Vermeeren, A., Riedel, W.J., van Boxtel, M.P., Darwish, M., Paty, I., Patat, A. Sleep. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Dose-response effects of zopiclone on night sleep and on nighttime and daytime functioning. Billiard, M., Besset, A., de Lustrac, C., Brissaud, L. Sleep. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. A comparison of actigraphy and polysomnography in older adults treated for chronic primary insomnia. Sivertsen, B., Omvik, S., Havik, O.E., Pallesen, S., Bjorvatn, B., Nielsen, G.H., Straume, S., Nordhus, I.H. Sleep. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Incidence of cancer in individuals receiving chronic zopiclone or eszopiclone requires prospective study. Stebbing, J., Waters, L., Davies, L., Mandalia, S., Nelson, M., Gazzard, B., Bower, M. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization of the interaction of zopiclone with gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. Davies, M., Newell, J.G., Derry, J.M., Martin, I.L., Dunn, S.M. Mol. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Rifampin reduces plasma concentrations and effects of zolpidem. Villikka, K., Kivistö, K.T., Luurila, H., Neuvonen, P.J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Potentiation of gamma-aminobutyric acid-induced chloride currents by various benzodiazepine site agonists with the alpha 1 gamma 2, beta 2 gamma 2 and alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 subtypes of cloned gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. Im, H.K., Im, W.B., Hamilton, B.J., Carter, D.B., Vonvoigtlander, P.F. Mol. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Stereochemical features controlling binding and intrinsic activity properties of benzodiazepine-receptor ligands. Borea, P.A., Gilli, G., Bertolasi, V., Ferretti, V. Mol. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. The intermediate stage and paradoxical sleep in the rat: influence of three generations of hypnotics. Gottesmann, C., Gandolfo, G., Arnaud, C., Gauthier, P. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of zopiclone and temazepam on sleep EEG parameters, psychomotor and memory functions in healthy elderly volunteers. Hemmeter, U., Müller, M., Bischof, R., Annen, B., Holsboer-Trachsler, E. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Zopiclone produces effects on human performance similar to flurazepam, lormetazepam and triazolam. Griffiths, A.N., Jones, D.M., Richens, A. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of hypnotics on sleep and psychomotor performance. A double-blind randomised study of lormetazepam, midazolam and zopiclone. Rettig, H.C., de Haan, P., Zuurmond, W.W., von Leeuwen, L. Anaesthesia. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Immediate and overnight effects of zopiclone 7.5 mg and nitrazepam 5 mg with ethanol, on psychomotor performance and memory in healthy volunteers. Hindmarch, I. International clinical psychopharmacology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Anxiolytic cyclopyrrolones zopiclone and suriclone bind to a novel site linked allosterically to benzodiazepine receptors. Trifiletti, R.R., Snyder, S.H. Mol. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Clinical pharmacokinetics of zopiclone. Fernandez, C., Martin, C., Gimenez, F., Farinotti, R. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Postmarketing surveillance of zopiclone in insomnia: analysis of 20,513 cases. Allain, H., Delahaye, C., Le Coz, F., Blin, P., Decombe, R., Martinet, J.P. Sleep. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Suriclone: a new cyclopyrrolone derivative recognizing receptors labeled by benzodiazepines in rat hippocampus and cerebellum. Blanchard, J.C., Julou, L. J. Neurochem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of benzodiazepine and GABA antagonists on anticonflict effects of antianxiety drugs injected into the rat amygdala in a water-lick suppression test. Shibata, S., Yamashita, K., Yamamoto, E., Ozaki, T., Ueki, S. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Modification of GABA turnover in the striatum and hippocampus of the rat after zopiclone. Zambotti, F., Zonta, N., Hafner, B., Ferrario, P., Zecca, L., Mantegazza, P. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Plasma concentrations and central nervous system effects of the new hypnotic agent zopiclone in patients with chronic liver disease. Parker, G., Roberts, C.J. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Cytochrome P-450 3A4 and 2C8 are involved in zopiclone metabolism. Becquemont, L., Mouajjah, S., Escaffre, O., Beaune, P., Funck-Brentano, C., Jaillon, P. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of zopiclone and diazepam on ventilatory response in normal human subjects. Ranløv, P.J., Nielsen, S.P. Sleep. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic consequences and clinical relevance of cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition. Dresser, G.K., Spence, J.D., Bailey, D.G. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Comparative pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of short-acting hypnosedatives: zaleplon, zolpidem and zopiclone. Drover, D.R. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Chronic administration of zopiclone and nitrazepam in the treatment of insomnia. Tamminen, T., Hansen, P.P. Sleep. (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. Zopiclone and triazolam in insomnia associated with generalized anxiety disorder: a placebo-controlled evaluation of efficacy and daytime anxiety. Fontaine, R., Beaudry, P., Le Morvan, P., Beauclair, L., Chouinard, G. International clinical psychopharmacology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. The CYP2C8 inhibitor gemfibrozil does not increase the plasma concentrations of zopiclone. Tornio, A., Neuvonen, P.J., Backman, J.T. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Residual effects of zopiclone (Imovane). Broadhurst, A., Cushnaghan, R.C. Sleep. (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. Dynamics of slow-wave activity and spindle frequency activity in the human sleep EEG: effect of midazolam and zopiclone. Aeschbach, D., Dijk, D.J., Trachsel, L., Brunner, D.P., Borbély, A.A. Neuropsychopharmacology (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. A comparison between visual and computer assessment of sleep onset latency and their application in a pharmacological sleep study. Jobert, M., Escola, H., Jähnig, P., Schulz, H. Sleep. (1993) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities