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Disease relevance of Saccades

  • In SCA1, saccade amplitude was significantly increased, resulting in hypermetria [1].
  • This short latency is similar to that of a corrective saccade, and suggests that edrophonium induces macrosaccadic oscillations through a non-visually guided reflex saccade by temporarily unmasking the adaptively increased saccadic gain to overcome myasthenic ocular paresis [2].
  • In 32 with the typical clinical features of HD (progressive chorea and dementia, postural instability, abnormal initiation of saccadic eye movements), the diagnosis was confirmed in 7 patients who had had autopsies, affected relatives were found in 5 others, and HD remained probable in a further 13 who were reexamined [3].
  • To test this possibility memory-contingent and visually-guided saccades were measured in patients with essential blepharospasm and cranial dystonia [4].
  • Clinical revaluation and genetic analysis of six Indian pedigrees, segregating autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, slow saccades and peripheral neuropathy, has been undertaken, and expansion at the spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA2) locus was confirmed in 14 affected family members [5].

Psychiatry related information on Saccades


High impact information on Saccades

  • In one such model, the presence of a target causes a signal in a decision unit to rise linearly at a rate r from its initial value s0 until it reaches a fixed threshold theta, when a saccade is initiated [11].
  • Using fluorescein angiography, we show here that during every saccade, the pecten acts as an agitator which propels perfusate towards the central retina much more effectively than is observed during intersaccadic intervals [12].
  • A hypofunctioning mesocortical dopamine branch will cause attention response deficiencies (deficient orienting responses, impaired saccadic eye movements, and poorer attention responses toward a target) and poor behavioral planning (poor executive functions) [13].
  • Saccadic eye movements produced midline blood-flow increases in the posterior vermis of the cerebellum [14].
  • Saccade velocity thus is a sensitive, quite specific, and objective endophenotype, useful to search polyglutamine modifier genes [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Saccades


Biological context of Saccades


Anatomical context of Saccades


Associations of Saccades with chemical compounds

  • We measured the amplitudes and velocities of centrifugal saccades at the start of the task, after 3 minutes of the task (fatigue) and 1 minute after receiving IV edrophonium [30].
  • Inactivation of the OT with lidocaine reduced the size but did not eliminate (or change the direction of) the saccades evoked by AGF stimulation [31].
  • RESULTS: Ketamine significantly increased the number of leading saccades and increased the leading saccade ratios for more slowly moving targets [32].
  • Effects of intravenous temazepam. I. Saccadic eye movements and electroencephalogram after fast and slow infusion to pseudo steady state [33].
  • There were no effects of nicotine on visually guided and memory saccades, or visual attention (d' from a continuous performance task).CONCLUSIONS: Nicotine showed differential effects in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy subjects [34].

Gene context of Saccades


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Saccades


  1. Eye movement abnormalities correlate with genotype in autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia type I. Rivaud-Pechoux, S., Dürr, A., Gaymard, B., Cancel, G., Ploner, C.J., Agid, Y., Brice, A., Pierrot-Deseilligny, C. Ann. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Edrophonium-induced macrosaccadic oscillations in myasthenia gravis. Komiyama, A., Toda, H., Johkura, K. Ann. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. A follow-up study of isolated cases of suspected Huntington's disease. Bateman, D., Boughey, A.M., Scaravilli, F., Marsden, C.D., Harding, A.E. Ann. Neurol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Memory-contingent saccades and the substantia nigra postulate for essential blepharospasm. Hotson, J.R., Boman, D.R. Brain (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. A clinicogenetic analysis of six Indian spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA2) pedigrees. The significance of slow saccades in diagnosis. Wadia, N., Pang, J., Desai, J., Mankodi, A., Desai, M., Chamberlain, S. Brain (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Eye movement and visuomotor arm movement deficits following mild closed head injury. Heitger, M.H., Anderson, T.J., Jones, R.D., Dalrymple-Alford, J.C., Frampton, C.M., Ardagh, M.W. Brain (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Altered control of visual fixation and saccadic eye movements in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Munoz, D.P., Armstrong, I.T., Hampton, K.A., Moore, K.D. J. Neurophysiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Oculomotor abnormalities in boys with tourette syndrome with and without ADHD. Mostofsky, S.H., Lasker, A.G., Singer, H.S., Denckla, M.B., Zee, D.S. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Ocular motor abnormalities in Huntington's disease. Lasker, A.G., Zee, D.S. Vision Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of zolpidem on saccadic eye movements and psychomotor performance: a double-blind, placebo controlled study in healthy volunteers. Richens, A., Mercer, A.J., Jones, D.M., Griffiths, A., Marshall, R.W. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Neural computation of log likelihood in control of saccadic eye movements. Carpenter, R.H., Williams, M.L. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Saccadic oscillations facilitate ocular perfusion from the avian pecten. Pettigrew, J.D., Wallman, J., Wildsoet, C.F. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. A dynamic developmental theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predominantly hyperactive/impulsive and combined subtypes. Sagvolden, T., Johansen, E.B., Aase, H., Russell, V.A. The Behavioral and brain sciences. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Functional mapping of the human cerebellum with positron emission tomography. Fox, P.T., Raichle, M.E., Thach, W.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Saccade velocity is controlled by polyglutamine size in spinocerebellar ataxia 2. Velázquez-Pérez, L., Seifried, C., Santos-Falcón, N., Abele, M., Ziemann, U., Almaguer, L.E., Martínez-Góngora, E., Sánchez-Cruz, G., Canales, N., Pérez-González, R., Velázquez-Manresa, M., Viebahn, B., von Stuckrad-Barre, S., Fetter, M., Klockgether, T., Auburger, G. Ann. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Slow saccades and hypometria in anticonvulsant toxicity. Thurston, S.E., Leigh, R.J., Abel, L.A., Dell'Osso, L.F. Neurology (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Specific oculomotor deficit after diazepam. I. Saccadic eye movements. Rothenberg, S.J., Selkoe, D. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Saccadic reaction times, eye-arm coordination and spontaneous eye movements in normal and MPTP-treated monkeys. Schultz, W., Romo, R., Scarnati, E., Sundström, E., Jonsson, G., Studer, A. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of lithium on saccadic eye movements in healthy subjects in a ten-day double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over pilot study. Amado, I., Galinowski, A., Daban, C., Ramdane-Cherif, Z., Poirier, E., Bourdel, M.C., Poirier, M.F., Krebs, M.O. Pharmacopsychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Rate of entrance of benzodiazepines into the brain determined by eye movement recording. Tedeschi, G., Smith, A.T., Dhillon, S., Richens, A. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Eye movements in monkeys with local dopamine depletion in the caudate nucleus. II. Deficits in voluntary saccades. Kori, A., Miyashita, N., Kato, M., Hikosaka, O., Usui, S., Matsumura, M. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Oculomotor phenotypes in autosomal dominant ataxias. Buttner, N., Geschwind, D., Jen, J.C., Perlman, S., Pulst, S.M., Baloh, R.W. Arch. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia: SCA2 is the most frequent mutation in eastern India. Sinha, K.K., Worth, P.F., Jha, D.K., Sinha, S., Stinton, V.J., Davis, M.B., Wood, N.W., Sweeney, M.G., Bhatia, K.P. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. EEG cortical potentials preceding vergence and combined saccade-vergence eye movements. Kapoula, Z., Evdokimidis, I., Smyrnis, N., Bucci, M.P., Constantinidis, T.S. Neuroreport (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of diazepam on the latency of saccades for luminance and binocular disparity defined stimuli. Wang, C., Tong, J., Sun, F. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Oculomotor effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans: implications for the functional neuroanatomy of the brain cannabinoid system. Ploner, C.J., Tschirch, A., Ostendorf, F., Dick, S., Gaymard, B.M., Rivaud-Péchoux, S., Sporkert, F., Pragst, F., Stadelmann, A.M. Cereb. Cortex (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Injection of nicotine into the superior colliculus facilitates occurrence of express saccades in monkeys. Aizawa, H., Kobayashi, Y., Yamamoto, M., Isa, T. J. Neurophysiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of partial lidocaine inactivation of the paramedian pontine reticular formation on saccades of macaques. Barton, E.J., Nelson, J.S., Gandhi, N.J., Sparks, D.L. J. Neurophysiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. A possible role of midbrain dopamine neurons in short- and long-term adaptation of saccades to position-reward mapping. Takikawa, Y., Kawagoe, R., Hikosaka, O. J. Neurophysiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Effects of edrophonium on saccadic velocity in normal subjects and myasthenic and nonmyasthenic ocular palsies. Barton, J.J., Huaman, A.G., Sharpe, J.A. Ann. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Characterization of a forebrain gaze field in the archistriatum of the barn owl: microstimulation and anatomical connections. Knudsen, E.I., Cohen, Y.E., Masino, T. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Effects of ketamine on leading saccades during smooth-pursuit eye movements may implicate cerebellar dysfunction in schizophrenia. Avila, M.T., Weiler, M.A., Lahti, A.C., Tamminga, C.A., Thaker, G.K. The American journal of psychiatry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Effects of intravenous temazepam. I. Saccadic eye movements and electroencephalogram after fast and slow infusion to pseudo steady state. van Steveninck, A.L., Schoemaker, H.C., den Hartigh, J., Rijnkels, J., Pieters, M.S., Breimer, D.D., Cohen, A.F. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. The effects of nicotine on specific eye tracking measures in schizophrenia. Sherr, J.D., Myers, C., Avila, M.T., Elliott, A., Blaxton, T.A., Thaker, G.K. Biol. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias in Spain: molecular and clinical correlations, prevalence estimation and survival analysis. Infante, J., Combarros, O., Volpini, V., Corral, J., Llorca, J., Berciano, J. Acta neurologica Scandinavica. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Altered performance on an ocular fixation task in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Gould, T.D., Bastain, T.M., Israel, M.E., Hommer, D.W., Castellanos, F.X. Biol. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Biomarkers for the effects of antipsychotic drugs in healthy volunteers. de Visser, S.J., van der Post, J., Pieters, M.S., Cohen, A.F., van Gerven, J.M. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Extraretinal saccadic signals in human LGN and early retinotopic cortex. Sylvester, R., Rees, G. Neuroimage (2006) [Pubmed]
  39. Adverse effects of risperidone on eye movement activity: a comparison of risperidone and haloperidol in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenic patients. Sweeney, J.A., Bauer, K.S., Keshavan, M.S., Haas, G.L., Schooler, N.R., Kroboth, P.D. Neuropsychopharmacology (1997) [Pubmed]
  40. GABA-benzodiazepine receptor function in alcohol dependence: a combined 11C-flumazenil PET and pharmacodynamic study. Lingford-Hughes, A.R., Wilson, S.J., Cunningham, V.J., Feeney, A., Stevenson, B., Brooks, D.J., Nutt, D.J. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  41. REM sleep eye movement counts correlate with visual imagery in dreaming: a pilot study. Hong, C.C., Potkin, S.G., Antrobus, J.S., Dow, B.M., Callaghan, G.M., Gillin, J.C. Psychophysiology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  42. Effects of ethanol and imidazobenzodiazepine Ro 15-4513 on spontaneous saccades of the pigmented rat. Rossi, F., Chelazzi, L., Tempia, F., Strata, P. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (1989) [Pubmed]
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