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Chemical Compound Review

Idalprem     10-chloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)- 4-hydroxy-3,6...

Synonyms: Duralozam, Durazolam, Laubeel, NuLoraz, Sedicepan, ...
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Disease relevance of Ativan


Psychiatry related information on Ativan

  • Failure of buspirone to protect against lorazepam withdrawal symptoms [5].
  • Measures of family attitudes (expressed emotion [EE]) and interactional behaviors (affective style [AS]), both of which have been found to predict relapse in schizophrenia, were obtained from key relatives of 23 hospitalized recently manic bipolar patients [6].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine if the APOE epsilon4 allele increases susceptibility to lorazepam-induced verbal learning impairment in nondemented older adults [7].
  • Significant differences also emerged on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and in the number of supplemental doses of lorazepam required by the patients in each group [8].
  • Task-related neural activity in bilateral PFC showed a predicted pattern: an Emotion x Stimulus crossover interaction, with no main effects, with activity predicting task performance [9].

High impact information on Ativan


Chemical compound and disease context of Ativan


Biological context of Ativan


Anatomical context of Ativan

  • RESULTS: Lorazepam significantly attenuated the BOLD-fMRI signal in a dose-dependent manner in bilateral amygdala and insula but not in the medial prefrontal cortex [12].
  • Lorazepam did not affect the BOLD-fMRI signal in the primary visual cortex [12].
  • The thalamus as the generator and modulator of EEG alpha rhythm: a combined PET/EEG study with lorazepam challenge in humans [21].
  • The distributed MRI-constrained MEG source estimates demonstrated decreased alpha (10 Hz) activity in and around the parieto-occipital sulcus and in the calcarine sulcus of the occipital lobe, following from increased GABA(A)-inhibition by lorazepam [22].
  • Whereas the normal and alcoholic subjects showed similar responses to lorazepam in occipital and cerebellar metabolism, the alcoholic subjects showed significantly less of a response than the comparison subjects in the thalamus, basal ganglia, and orbitofrontal cortex [23].

Associations of Ativan with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Ativan


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ativan

  • In a randomized, double-blind study, we compared lorazepam with placebo for the prevention of recurrent seizures related to alcohol [32].
  • Intravenous lorazepam to prevent nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy [33].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether lorazepam dose-dependently attenuates blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) activation in the amygdala and associated limbic structures during an emotion face assessment task [12].
  • Ten healthy young subjects were scanned on four occasions, 2 weeks apart; they were administered i.v. saline during two placebo-scanning sessions and then alternately administered i.v. lorazepam (1 mg) or scopolamine (0.4 mg) in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design [34].
  • Lorazepam, a dichloro-3-hydroxy-1,4-benzodiazepine, has been shown to be a potent anticonvulsant in animal models of epilsepsy and has minimal depressant effects on respiration and circulation in humans [35].


  1. A comparison of lorazepam, diazepam, and placebo for the treatment of out-of-hospital status epilepticus. Alldredge, B.K., Gelb, A.M., Isaacs, S.M., Corry, M.D., Allen, F., Ulrich, S., Gottwald, M.D., O'Neil, N., Neuhaus, J.M., Segal, M.R., Lowenstein, D.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. A comparison of four treatments for generalized convulsive status epilepticus. Veterans Affairs Status Epilepticus Cooperative Study Group. Treiman, D.M., Meyers, P.D., Walton, N.Y., Collins, J.F., Colling, C., Rowan, A.J., Handforth, A., Faught, E., Calabrese, V.P., Uthman, B.M., Ramsay, R.E., Mamdani, M.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Lorazepam in myoclonic seizures after cardiac arrest. Vincent, F.M., Vincent, T. Ann. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Enhanced sensitivity to benzodiazepines in active cocaine-abusing subjects: a PET study. Volkow, N.D., Wang, G.J., Fowler, J.S., Hitzemann, R., Gatley, S.J., Dewey, S.S., Pappas, N. The American journal of psychiatry. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Failure of buspirone to protect against lorazepam withdrawal symptoms. Jerkovich, G.S., Preskorn, S.H. JAMA (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Family factors and the course of bipolar affective disorder. Miklowitz, D.J., Goldstein, M.J., Nuechterlein, K.H., Snyder, K.S., Mintz, J. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele and lorazepam effects on memory in high-functioning older adults. Pomara, N., Willoughby, L., Wesnes, K., Greenblatt, D.J., Sidtis, J.J. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Valproate in the treatment of acute mania. A placebo-controlled study. Pope, H.G., McElroy, S.L., Keck, P.E., Hudson, J.I. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Integration of emotion and cognition in the lateral prefrontal cortex. Gray, J.R., Braver, T.S., Raichle, M.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Genomic imprinting. Silence across the border. Reik, W., Murrell, A. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Human genetics. Silence speaks in spectrin. Gratzer, W. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Dose-dependent decrease of activation in bilateral amygdala and insula by lorazepam during emotion processing. Paulus, M.P., Feinstein, J.S., Castillo, G., Simmons, A.N., Stein, M.B. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. A double-blind comparison of lorazepam and oxazepam in psychomotor retardation and mutism. Schmider, J., Standhart, H., Deuschle, M., Drancoli, J., Heuser, I. Biol. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Hepatic drug clearance in children with leukemia: changes in clearance of model substrates during remission-induction therapy. Relling, M.V., Crom, W.R., Pieper, J.A., Cupit, G.C., Rivera, G.K., Evans, W.E. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Amitriptyline, but not lorazepam, relieves postherpetic neuralgia. Max, M.B., Schafer, S.C., Culnane, M., Smoller, B., Dubner, R., Gracely, R.H. Neurology (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Urinary and brain beta-carboline-3-carboxylates as potent inhibitors of brain benzodiazepine receptors. Braestrup, C., Nielsen, M., Olsen, C.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Clinical pharmacokinetics of lorazepam. I. Absorption and disposition of oral 14C-lorazepam. Greenblatt, D.J., Schillings, R.T., Kyriakopoulos, A.A., Shader, R.I., Sisenwine, S.F., Knowles, J.A., Ruelius, H.W. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. Lorazepam kinetics in the elderly. Greenblatt, D.J., Allen, M.D., Locniskar, A., Harmatz, J.S., Shader, R.I. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. The effects of chlorpromazine and lorazepam on abnormal antisaccade and no-saccade distractibility. Green, J.F., King, D.J. Biol. Psychiatry (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of the UGT2B15 genotype on the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and drug interactions of intravenous lorazepam in healthy volunteers. Chung, J.Y., Cho, J.Y., Yu, K.S., Kim, J.R., Jung, H.R., Lim, K.S., Jang, I.J., Shin, S.G. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. The thalamus as the generator and modulator of EEG alpha rhythm: a combined PET/EEG study with lorazepam challenge in humans. Schreckenberger, M., Lange-Asschenfeld, C., Lochmann, M., Mann, K., Siessmeier, T., Buchholz, H.G., Bartenstein, P., Gründer, G. Neuroimage (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. MRI-constrained spectral imaging of benzodiazepine modulation of spontaneous neuromagnetic activity in human cortex. Ahveninen, J., Lin, F.H., Kivisaari, R., Autti, T., Hämäläinen, M., Stufflebeam, S., Belliveau, J.W., Kähkönen, S. Neuroimage (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Decreased cerebral response to inhibitory neurotransmission in alcoholics. Volkow, N.D., Wang, G.J., Hitzemann, R., Fowler, J.S., Wolf, A.P., Pappas, N., Biegon, A., Dewey, S.L. The American journal of psychiatry. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Benzodiazepine receptors mediate regional blood flow changes in the living human brain. Matthew, E., Andreason, P., Pettigrew, K., Carson, R.E., Herscovitch, P., Cohen, R., King, C., Johanson, C.E., Greenblatt, D.J., Paul, S.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Withdrawal of haloperidol, thioridazine, and lorazepam in the nursing home: a controlled, double-blind study. Cohen-Mansfield, J., Lipson, S., Werner, P., Billig, N., Taylor, L., Woosley, R. Arch. Intern. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of oral contraceptives on triazolam, temazepam, alprazolam, and lorazepam kinetics. Stoehr, G.P., Kroboth, P.D., Juhl, R.P., Wender, D.B., Phillips, J.P., Smith, R.B. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Premedication with orally administered lorazepam in adults undergoing ERCP: a randomized double-blind study. Weitz, G., Homann, N., von Jagow, D.C., Wellhöner, P., Sauer, A., Ludwig, D. Gastrointest. Endosc. (2007) [Pubmed]
  28. Decreased GABAA receptor subunit mRNA concentrations following chronic lorazepam administration. Kang, I., Miller, L.G. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Amnesia-producing drugs affect hippocampal frequency potentiation. Brown, M.W., Rose, D., Ahlquist, J. Neuroscience (1983) [Pubmed]
  30. The stress-induced reduction in monoamine oxidase (MAO) A activity is reversed by benzodiazepines: role of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors. Armando, I., Lemoine, A.P., Segura, E.T., Barontini, M.B. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Is expressed emotion a specific risk factor for depression or a nonspecific correlate of psychopathology? Asarnow, J.R., Tompson, M., Woo, S., Cantwell, D.P. Journal of abnormal child psychology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Lorazepam for the prevention of recurrent seizures related to alcohol. D'Onofrio, G., Rathlev, N.K., Ulrich, A.S., Fish, S.S., Freedland, E.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Intravenous lorazepam to prevent nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. Maher, J. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  34. Functional MRI detection of pharmacologically induced memory impairment. Sperling, R., Greve, D., Dale, A., Killiany, R., Holmes, J., Rosas, H.D., Cocchiarella, A., Firth, P., Rosen, B., Lake, S., Lange, N., Routledge, C., Albert, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Lorazepam in status epilepticus. Walker, J.E., Homan, R.W., Vasko, M.R., Crawford, I.L., Bell, R.D., Tasker, W.G. Ann. Neurol. (1979) [Pubmed]
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