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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Astigmatism


High impact information on Astigmatism

  • The progression rate of astigmatism was affected by the ethnicity, presence of myopia, axis, and subtype of astigmatism [6].
  • Most aberration terms were similar, averaged across the 70 patients, before and after surgery (spherical aberration: pre, 0.32 +/- 0.12 microm, and post, 0.34 +/- 0.19 microm; astigmatism: pre, 0.9 +/- 0.8 D, and post, 1.1 +/- 1.0 D; coma: pre, 0.27 +/- 0.18 microm, and post, 0.32 +/- 0.33 microm) [7].
  • The prevalence of WTR and ATR astigmatism significantly decreased (P < 0.001) and increased (P = 0.006) with age, respectively [8].
  • The age and gender standardized prevalences of myopia (< -0.5 D), emmetropia, hyperopia (> +0.5 D), astigmatism (< -0.5 D of cylinder) and anisometropia (>1.0 D difference between eyes) were 17.2%, 49.9%, 32.9%, 40.9%, and 10.7%, respectively [9].
  • In this Letter we provide what is believed to be the first experimental evidence of suppression of the number of filaments for high-intensity laser pulses propagating in air by beam astigmatism [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Astigmatism


Biological context of Astigmatism


Anatomical context of Astigmatism


Gene context of Astigmatism

  • PARTICIPANTS: Forty-eight eyes of 14 men and 34 women (age range, 26-54; mean, 39.2 years) who underwent bilateral LASIK for myopia or myopic astigmatism [26].
  • Lower field myopia is not an artifact of oblique astigmatism, nor of an aberration symmetrical about the optical axis [27].
  • With-the-rule (WTR) astigmatism of at least 0.25 D was the most frequent form (45%) followed by against-the-rule (ATR; 40%) and oblique (15%) [28].
  • The PVP ranged from 84% when a diagnosis of strabismus was suggested by the photoscreen reading to 41% for astigmatism [29].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of photoastigmatic refractive keratectomy (PARK) by the MEL 60 (Aesculap-Meditec, Jana, Germany) scanning excimer laser for the treatment of myopic astigmatism, with follow-up of 18 months [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Astigmatism


  1. Novel CACNA1F mutations in Japanese patients with incomplete congenital stationary night blindness. Nakamura, M., Ito, S., Terasaki, H., Miyake, Y. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Refractive errors in an elderly Chinese population in Taiwan: the Shihpai Eye Study. Cheng, C.Y., Hsu, W.M., Liu, J.H., Tsai, S.Y., Chou, P. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Two-flash photorefraction in screening of amblyogenic refractive errors. Kaakinen, K.A., Kaseva, H.O., Teir, H.H. Ophthalmology (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Making sense of refractive surgery in 2001: why, when, for whom, and by whom? Mannis, M.J., Segal, W.A., Darlington, J.K. Mayo Clin. Proc. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Single Intacs segment for post-laser in situ keratomileusis keratectasia. Pokroy, R., Levinger, S., Hirsh, A. Journal of cataract and refractive surgery. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Incidence and progression of astigmatism in Singaporean children. Tong, L., Saw, S.M., Lin, Y., Chia, K.S., Koh, D., Tan, D. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Corneal aberrations before and after small-incision cataract surgery. Guirao, A., Tejedor, J., Artal, P. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Prevalence of refractive errors in a rural South Indian population. Raju, P., Ramesh, S.V., Arvind, H., George, R., Baskaran, M., Paul, P.G., Kumaramanickavel, G., McCarty, C., Vijaya, L. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Ocular biometry and refraction in Mongolian adults. Wickremasinghe, S., Foster, P.J., Uranchimeg, D., Lee, P.S., Devereux, J.G., Alsbirk, P.H., Machin, D., Johnson, G.J., Baasanhu, J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Control of multiple filamentation in air. Fibich, G., Eisenmann, S., Ilan, B., Zigler, A. Optics letters. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. One-year evaluation of myopic laser photoastigmatic refractive keratectomy using the summit apex plus: phase III of a Food and Drug Administration clinical trial. Haw, W.W., Manche, E.E. Ophthalmology (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Correction of irregular astigmatism with excimer laser assisted by sodium hyaluronate. Alió, J.L., Belda, J.I., Shalaby, A.M. Ophthalmology (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Ophthalmic findings in fetal anticonvulsant syndrome(s). Glover, S.J., Quinn, A.G., Barter, P., Hart, J., Moore, S.J., Dean, J.C., Turnpenny, P.D. Ophthalmology (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Fourier analysis of irregular astigmatism after implantation of 3 types of intraocular lenses. Hayashi, K., Hayashi, H., Oshika, T., Hayashi, F. Journal of cataract and refractive surgery. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Comparison of the effect of topical corticosteroids and nonsteroidals on postoperative corneal astigmatism. Masket, S. Journal of cataract and refractive surgery. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Contrast sensitivity after implantation of toric iris-claw lenses in phakic eyes. Dick, H.B., Tehrani, M., Aliyeva, S. Journal of cataract and refractive surgery. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Changes in intraocular pressure after laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. Agudelo, L.M., Molina, C.A., Alvarez, D.L. Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J. : 1995) (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. The artist and defective sight (a book review and commentary). Tannebaum, S. Journal of the American Optometric Association. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Astigmatism as a function of visual scan, head scan, and head posture. Forrest, E.B. American journal of optometry and physiological optics. (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Chronic intoxication of organophosphorus pesticide and its treatment. Ishikawa, S., Miyata, M., Aoki, S., Hanai, Y. Folia medica Cracoviensia. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Replacing the endothelium without corneal surface incisions or sutures: the first United States clinical series using the deep lamellar endothelial keratoplasty procedure. Terry, M.A., Ousley, P.J. Ophthalmology (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Orbscan mapping in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Pesudovs, K. Journal of cataract and refractive surgery. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Using a Nidek excimer laser with a rotary epithelial brush and corneal chilling: clinical results. Amoils, S.P. Journal of cataract and refractive surgery. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Clinical evaluation of keratometry and computerised videokeratography: intraobserver and interobserver variability on normal and astigmatic corneas. Karabatsas, C.H., Cook, S.D., Papaefthymiou, J., Turner, P., Sparrow, J.M. The British journal of ophthalmology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Fetal alcohol syndrome. Chan, D.Q. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Effects of laser in situ keratomileusis on tear production, clearance, and the ocular surface. Battat, L., Macri, A., Dursun, D., Pflugfelder, S.C. Ophthalmology (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Refractive sectors in the visual field of the pigeon eye. Fitzke, F.W., Hayes, B.P., Hodos, W., Holden, A.L., Low, J.C. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. The pattern of astigmatism in a Canadian preschool population. Cowen, L., Bobier, W.R. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Screening for amblyogenic factors using a volunteer lay network and the MTI photoscreener. Initial results from 15,000 preschool children in a statewide effort. Donahue, S.P., Johnson, T.M., Leonard-Martin, T.C. Ophthalmology (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Excimer laser photoastigmatic refractive keratectomy: eighteen-month follow-up. Zadok, D., Haviv, D., Vishnevskia-Dai, V., Morad, Y., Levy, Y., Krakowski, D., Nemet, P. Ophthalmology (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia up to -11 diopters with up to -5 diopters of astigmatism with the summit autonomous LADARVision excimer laser system. McDonald, M.B., Carr, J.D., Frantz, J.M., Kozarsky, A.M., Maguen, E., Nesburn, A.B., Rabinowitz, Y.S., Salz, J.J., Stulting, R.D., Thompson, K.P., Waring, G.O. Ophthalmology (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Astigmatism induced by spherical photorefractive keratectomy corrections. Shah, S., Chatterjee, A., Doyle, S.J., Bessant, D.A. Ophthalmology (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Laser in situ keratomileusis for correction of myopia and astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty. Donnenfeld, E.D., Kornstein, H.S., Amin, A., Speaker, M.D., Seedor, J.A., Sforza, P.D., Landrio, L.M., Perry, H.D. Ophthalmology (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Corneal sensitivity after radial keratotomy. Shivitz, I.A., Arrowsmith, P.N. Ophthalmology (1988) [Pubmed]
  35. Treatment of myopia and myopic astigmatism by customized laser in situ keratomileusis based on corneal topography. Knorz, M.C., Neuhann, T. Ophthalmology (2000) [Pubmed]
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