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Chemical Compound Review

Calcium oxalate monohydrate     calcium ethanedioate hydrate

Synonyms: ACMC-1BMV0, AG-E-74483, AC1L4WJI, CTK4F4429, AR-1I1613, ...
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Disease relevance of oxalic acid


High impact information on oxalic acid

  • In summary, inhibiting activation of p38 MAPK pathway abrogated the DNA synthesis in response to COM crystals [4].
  • Interaction of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with renal cells has been shown to result in altered gene expression, DNA synthesis, and cell death [4].
  • The nucleation and growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals were studied using the constant composition kinetics technique, in solution supersaturated with respect to COM (sigmaCOM = 1.44) [5].
  • The initial growth rate of COM on pure HAP particles, Rm approximately/= 0.56 X 10(-7) mol/min per m2, was slower than that for HAP surfaces preadsorbed with albumin, 2.14 x 10(-7) mol/min per m2 [5].
  • Coated COM crystals from male controls contained 3.5-fold more Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) than SF subjects (P < 0.01) [6].

Biological context of oxalic acid


Anatomical context of oxalic acid

  • These data are the first demonstrations of activation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway by COM crystals and suggest that, in response to COM crystals, this pathway transduces critical signals governing the re-initiation of DNA synthesis in renal epithelial cells [4].
  • Whereas to our knowledge the binding molecules for COM at the surface of LLC-PK1 cells are still unknown, crystals adhere to the hyaluronan (HA) rich pericellular matrix transiently expressed by mobile MDCK-I cells [10].

Associations of oxalic acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of oxalic acid

  • COM crystal coating by urinary prothrombin fragment 1 (UPTF1, P < 0.05) and crystal adhesion inhibitor (CAI) (P= 0.09) correlated with decreased crystal binding to cells, whereas coating with osteopontin (OPN) correlated with increased adhesion tendency (P < 0.05) [6].
  • CONCLUSION: Urinary macromolecules >10 kD coat COM crystals and block their adhesion to renal cells [6].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of oxalic acid

  • In order to identify responsible macromolecule(s), calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals were coated with U(conc) and adherent proteins then released and probed by Western blot [6].
  • Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis were performed to assess whether the crystals became coated with urine derived proteins RESULTS: Western blot analysis demonstrated that pretreated COM crystals were covered with protein inhibitors of crystallization [10].
  • RESULTS: The COM-coated stent mineralized upon immersion in the supersaturated solutions [15].
  • In these experiments SEM and X-ray crystallography showed a high percentage of CaOx in the precipitate [16].
  • The aim of this paper is to clarify some of these questions by studying the regrowth achieved by real spontaneously passed post-extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (post-ESWL) fragments of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) renal calculi [17].


  1. Reduced crystallization inhibition by urine from women with nephrolithiasis. Asplin, J.R., Parks, J.H., Nakagawa, Y., Coe, F.L. Kidney Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Evaluation of synchronous twin pulse technique for shock wave lithotripsy: determination of optimal parameters for in vitro stone fragmentation. Sheir, K.Z., Zabihi, N., Lee, D., Teichman, J.M., Rehman, J., Sundaram, C.P., Heimbach, D., Hesse, A., Delvecchio, F., Zhong, P., Preminger, G.M., Clayman, R.V. J. Urol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression profiling of crystal-induced injury in human kidney epithelial cells. Liang, L., Chen, J., Vittal, R., Selvanayagam, Z.E., McAteer, J.A., Deng, L., Tischfield, J., Chin, K.V., Sahota, A. Nephron. Physiology [electronic resource]. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. COM crystals activate the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway in renal epithelial cells. Koul, H.K., Menon, M., Chaturvedi, L.S., Koul, S., Sekhon, A., Bhandari, A., Huang, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Nucleation at surfaces: the importance of interfacial energy. Wu, W., Gerard, D.E., Nancollas, G.H. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Urinary macromolecular inhibition of crystal adhesion to renal epithelial cells is impaired in male stone formers. Kumar, V., Peña de la Vega, L., Farell, G., Lieske, J.C. Kidney Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Properties and function of nephrocalcin: mechanism of kidney stone inhibition or promotion. Nakagawa, Y. The Keio journal of medicine. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Sex- and age-related composition of 10 617 calculi analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. Daudon, M., Donsimoni, R., Hennequin, C., Fellahi, S., Le Moel, G., Paris, M., Troupel, S., Lacour, B. Urol. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Morphological and immunological characteristics of nanobacteria from human renal stones of a north Indian population. Khullar, M., Sharma, S.K., Singh, S.K., Bajwa, P., Sheikh, F.A., Relan, V., Sharma, M. Urol. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Urinary crystallization inhibitors do not prevent crystal binding. Schepers, M.S., van der Boom, B.G., Romijn, J.C., Schröder, F.H., Verkoelen, C.F. J. Urol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Inhibitors within the nephron. Coe, F.L., Nakagawa, Y., Parks, J.H. Am. J. Kidney Dis. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Tamm-Horsfall protein excretion and its relation to citrate in urine of stone-forming patients. Ganter, K., Bongartz, D., Hesse, A. Urology (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Study of the effects of different substances on the early stages of papillary stone formation. Grases, F., Garcia-Ferragut, L., Costa-Bauzá, A., March, J.G. Nephron (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Cell-crystal interactions and kidney stone formation. Lieske, J.C., Deganello, S., Toback, F.G. Nephron (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Encrustation of a metal alloy urinary stent: a mechanistic investigation. Barbalias, G.A., Bouropoulos, C., Vagenas, N.V., Bouropoulos, N., Siablis, D., Liatsikos, E.N., Karnabatidis, D., Koutsoukos, P.G. Eur. Urol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Crystallization during volume reduction of solutions with a composition corresponding to that in the collecting duct: the influence of hydroxyapatite seed crystals and urinary macromolecules. Højgaard, I., Fornander, A.M., Nilsson, M.A., Tiselius, H.G. Urol. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Factors affecting the regrowth of renal stones in vitro: a contribution to the understanding of renal stone development. Costa-Bauzá, A., Isern, B., Perelló, J., Sanchis, P., Grases, F. Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology. (2005) [Pubmed]
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