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Chemical Compound Review

AC1NSZT1     2-[(3Z,7E,12E)-11,17- dihydroxy-1,4,8,12...

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Disease relevance of Proliferin


High impact information on Proliferin


Biological context of Proliferin

  • Co-localization of elements required for phorbol ester stimulation and glucocorticoid repression of proliferin gene expression [4].
  • Because of its relationship to prolactin and growth hormone and its association with cell proliferation, the protein has been called "proliferin."[7]
  • From a cDNA plasmid library prepared from poly(A)+ placental RNA, two types of proliferin-related clones were isolated, differing in intensity of hybridization to proliferin cDNA [8].
  • Analysis of the Sph element revealed that mutation of Sph repeats I or III abolished serum responsiveness of the PLF gene promoter, and mutation of Sph repeat III decreased protein binding to this element [9].
  • This heterogeneity is probably due to asynchrony in the population and may point to a correlation between the time of proliferin expression and the time of entry of a cell into S phase [10].

Anatomical context of Proliferin


Associations of Proliferin with other chemical compounds

  • Proliferin binding to endothelial cells is blocked by the addition of mannose 6-phosphate, as is the ability of both recombinant and placental-derived proliferin to stimulate the migration of capillary endothelial cells in vitro and to induce neovascularization in the rat cornea [13].
  • Asbestos-induced gene expression was inhibited by millimolar levels of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), supporting a linkage between: (i) induced oxidant stress that was sufficient to promote morphological transformation; (ii) induction of proliferin expression [14].
  • Compounds likely to promote transformation (nickel sulphate, benzyl peroxide and t-butyl hydroperoxide) were also effective and apparently selective, proliferin inducers in C3H/10T1/2 and primary murine fibroblasts [15].
  • Proliferin expression measured in near-confluent cultures was induced up to 10-fold during the 36-hr period following di-n-butyltin dichloride exposure and was accompanied by increased accumulation of transcripts from many genes regulated by oxidative stresses, growth-inducing agents, and/or other promoting agents (asbestos, superoxide radicals ) [16].

Gene context of Proliferin

  • Proliferin, a prolactin/growth hormone-like peptide represses myogenic-specific transcription by the suppression of an essential serum response factor-like DNA-binding activity [17].
  • Large cells that expressed the trophoblast giant cell-specific gene Plf (encoding Proliferin) invaded during the early postimplantation period in a pattern tightly associated with spiral arteries [18].
  • All of the other genes in this hormone family, including those encoding mPRL, mouse placental lactogens I and II, and mouse proliferin and proliferin-related protein, map to chromosome 13 [19].
  • Negative GREs contribute to the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (POMC and CRH), bone (osteocalcin) and skin (keratins) function, inflammation (IL-1beta), angiogenesis (proliferin) and lactation (prolactin) [20].
  • They should also be useful in examining the significance of binding of ligands, such as transforming growth factor-beta 1 precursor and proliferin to this receptor [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Proliferin


  1. Reactivation of proliferin gene expression is associated with increased angiogenesis in a cell culture model of fibrosarcoma tumor progression. Toft, D.J., Rosenberg, S.B., Bergers, G., Volpert, O., Linzer, D.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Proliferin enhances microvilli formation and cell growth of neuroblastoma cells. Wang, J.W., Jiang, Y.N., Huang, C.Y., Huang, P.Y., Huang, M.C., Cheng, W.T., Shen, C.K., Ju, Y.T. Neurosci. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Stimulation and inhibition of angiogenesis by placental proliferin and proliferin-related protein. Jackson, D., Volpert, O.V., Bouck, N., Linzer, D.I. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Co-localization of elements required for phorbol ester stimulation and glucocorticoid repression of proliferin gene expression. Mordacq, J.C., Linzer, D.I. Genes Dev. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. JunB is essential for mammalian placentation. Schorpp-Kistner, M., Wang, Z.Q., Angel, P., Wagner, E.F. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Transcriptional regulation of proliferin gene expression in response to serum in transfected mouse cells. Linzer, D.I., Mordacq, J.C. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Nucleotide sequence of a growth-related mRNA encoding a member of the prolactin-growth hormone family. Linzer, D.I., Nathans, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of proliferin mRNA and protein in mouse placenta. Linzer, D.I., Lee, S.J., Ogren, L., Talamantes, F., Nathans, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterization of a delayed early serum response region. Groskopf, J.C., Linzer, D.I. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Control of proliferin gene expression in serum-stimulated mouse cells. Linzer, D.I., Wilder, E.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. The mitogen-regulated protein/proliferin transcript is degraded in primary mouse embryo fibroblast but not 3T3 nuclei: altered RNA processing correlates with immortalization. Malyankar, U.M., Rittling, S.R., Connor, A., Denhardt, D.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. GATA-2 and GATA-3 regulate trophoblast-specific gene expression in vivo. Ma, G.T., Roth, M.E., Groskopf, J.C., Tsai, F.Y., Orkin, S.H., Grosveld, F., Engel, J.D., Linzer, D.I. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. The insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor is required for proliferin-induced angiogenesis. Volpert, O., Jackson, D., Bouck, N., Linzer, D.I. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Asbestos promotes morphological transformation and elevates expression of a gene family invariably induced by tumor promoters in C3H/10T1/2 cells. Parfett, C.L., Pilon, R., Caldeira, A.A. Carcinogenesis (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Induction of proliferin gene expression by diverse chemical agents that promote morphological transformation in C3H/10T1/2 cultures. Parfett, C.L. Cancer Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Promotion of morphological transformation by Di-n-butyltin dichloride in C3H/10T1/2 cells: prediction by prior expression of tumour promoter-responsive genes. Parfett, C.L., Marquardt, T., Pilon, R. Food Chem. Toxicol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Proliferin, a prolactin/growth hormone-like peptide represses myogenic-specific transcription by the suppression of an essential serum response factor-like DNA-binding activity. Muscat, G.E., Gobius, K., Emery, J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Interactions between trophoblast cells and the maternal and fetal circulation in the mouse placenta. Adamson, S.L., Lu, Y., Whiteley, K.J., Holmyard, D., Hemberger, M., Pfarrer, C., Cross, J.C. Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Chromosomal mapping of the prolactin/growth hormone gene family in the mouse. Jackson-Grusby, L.L., Pravtcheva, D., Ruddle, F.H., Linzer, D.I. Endocrinology (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Negative glucocorticoid receptor response elements and their role in glucocorticoid action. Dostert, A., Heinzel, T. Curr. Pharm. Des. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Binding of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) by human cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor/IGF-II receptor expressed in receptor-deficient mouse L cells. Nolan, C.M., Kyle, J.W., Watanabe, H., Sly, W.S. Cell Regul. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. A novel role for proliferin-2 in the ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells. Choong, M.L., Tan, A.C., Luo, B., Lodish, H.F. FEBS Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
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