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Chemical Compound Review

Frigen     chloro-difluoro-methane

Synonyms: Algofrene 6, Halocarbon 22, Propellant 22, Electro-CF 22, Arcton 4, ...
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Disease relevance of chloro-difluoro-methane


High impact information on chloro-difluoro-methane

  • Comparison of estimates of cardiac output by indicator dilution and freon 22 uptake during gas mixing in dogs [3].
  • The ribs and intercostal muscles were excised along a 20-cm vertical distance of the chest wall region, which was sprayed with liquid Freon 22, cooled with liquid nitrogen, to facilitate the fastest possible freezing of the visceral and parietal pleura [4].
  • The small but statistically highly significant differences between the expirograms of CO2 and O2, and of Freon-22 and acetylene, could be qualitatively explained by ventilation-perfusion inequalities with sequential emptying, by Taylor dispersion and by reversible solution in airway mucosa in the course of the respiratory cycle [5].
  • Despite the frequent use of freon-22 (e.g. to measure pulmonary blood flow), there is no agreement on its solubility in water or body fluids [6].
  • Elimination kinetics of acetylene and Freon 22 in resting and active lungless salamanders [7].

Biological context of chloro-difluoro-methane


Anatomical context of chloro-difluoro-methane


Associations of chloro-difluoro-methane with other chemical compounds


Gene context of chloro-difluoro-methane

  • The Frigen treatment used to clarify turbid sera seems to decrease IgG and increase C3c concentrations [17].
  • A novel pre-assay treatment using Frigen II was introduced to improve the recovery rates of cytokines, i.e., interleukin-1alpha, interleukin-1beta and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, prior to ELISA assay [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of chloro-difluoro-methane

  • The cultured tissue samples were processed for light and electron microscopy or rapidly frozen and stored in freon-22 under liquid nitrogen [18].
  • The tissue pieces were cryoprotected, frozen in Freon 22, and subjected to freeze-substitution in dry acetone containing 1% OsO4 [19].
  • A respiratory mass spectrometer has been used to follow the concentrations of argon and freon-22 during passive rebreathing in anaesthetized patients before cardiopulmonary bypass [20].
  • Quench freezing of fresh or fixed tissue in melting Freon 22 resulted in severe cellular damage due to ice crystallization [21].
  • This paper presents data on the measurement of aortic flow (Qa) using an electromagnetic flowmeter and the measurement of pulmonary blood flow (Qep) using a single-breath technique employing freon-22 as the soluble marker gas [22].


  1. Acute toxicity of fluorocarbon-22: toxic symptoms, lethal concentration, and its fate in rabbit and mouse. Sakata, M., Kazama, H., Miki, A., Yoshida, A., Haga, M., Morita, M. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Inhalation of decomposed chlorodifluoromethane (freon-22) and myocardial infarction. Sjögren, B., Gunnare, S., Sandler, H. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Comparison of estimates of cardiac output by indicator dilution and freon 22 uptake during gas mixing in dogs. Jones, H.A., Lakshminarayan, S., Becket, J.M., Hughes, J.M. Cardiovasc. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. No evidence for mesothelial cell contact across the costal pleural space of sheep. Albertine, K.H., Wiener-Kronish, J.P., Bastacky, J., Staub, N.C. J. Appl. Physiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Expirograms of O2, CO2 and intravenously infused C2H2 and Freon-22 during panting in dogs. Sipinková, I., Hahn, G., Hillebrecht, A., Meyer, M., Piiper, J. Respiration physiology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Solubility of freon-22 in blood and lung tissue. Franks, P.J., Hooper, R.H., Jones, P.R. British journal of anaesthesia. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Elimination kinetics of acetylene and Freon 22 in resting and active lungless salamanders. Feder, M.E., Full, R.J., Piiper, J. Respiration physiology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Headspace GC/MS testing for chlorodifluoromethane in two fatal cases. Kintz, P., Baccino, E., Tracqui, A., Mangin, P. Forensic Sci. Int. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Strengthening the Montreal protocol: does it cool down the greenhouse? den Elzen, M.G., Swart, R.J., Rotmans, J. Sci. Total Environ. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Human inhalation pharmacokinetics of chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC22). Woollen, B.H., Marsh, J.R., Mahler, J.D., Auton, T.R., Makepeace, D., Cocker, J., Blain, P.G. International archives of occupational and environmental health. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Cardiac arrhythmias during occupational exposure to fluorinated hydrocarbons. Antti-Poika, M., Heikkilä, J., Saarinen, L. British journal of industrial medicine. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Fatality due to recreational use of chlorodifluoromethane and chloropentafluoroethane. Fitzgerald, R.L., Fishel, C.E., Bush, L.L. J. Forensic Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. A freeze-etch electron microscopic study of liquid propane jet-frozen human erythrocyte membranes. Espevik, T., Elgsaeter, A. Journal of microscopy. (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Frigen II improves the reliability of measurement of interleukin-1 related substances in amniotic fluid. Ishihara, O., Saitoh, M., Kinoshita, K., Takanashi, H., Arai, Y., Kitagawa, H. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Direct demonstration of gas diffusion into the middle ear. Levy, D., Herman, M., Luntz, M., Sadé, J. Acta Otolaryngol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Evaluation of sampling and analytical methods for the determination of chlorodifluoromethane in air. Seymour, M.J., Lucas, M.F. American Industrial Hygiene Association journal. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Basic characteristics and evaluation of a partially automated Behring laser nephelometer for the measurement of IgG, IgA, IgM and C3c in serum. Desjarlais, F., Daigneault, R. Clin. Biochem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Elemental composition of lamellar bodies from fetal and adult human lung. Chinoy, M.R., Gonzales, L.W., Ballard, P.L., Fisher, A.B., Eckenhoff, R.G. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Association of malachite green-positive material with heparan sulfate proteoglycan double tracks in basement membrane of mouse kidney tubules. Inoue, S. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Non-invasive measurement of cardiac output during anaesthesia. An evaluation of the soluble gas uptake method. Heneghan, C.P., Branthwaite, M.A. British journal of anaesthesia. (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. An ultrastructural study of cryofractured myocardial cells with special attention to the relationship between mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Dalen, H., Scheie, P., Myklebust, R., Saetersdal, T. Journal of microscopy. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Effective pulmonary flow, aortic flow and cardiac output: in vitro and in vivo comparisons in the dog. Franks, P.J., Hooper, R.H., Humphries, R.G., Jones, P.R., O'Connor, S.E. Exp. Physiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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