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Disease relevance of Flowmeters


High impact information on Flowmeters

  • To explore this question, the renal vascular responses (RVR) to intrarenal injections of subpressor doses of AII and norepinephrine were studied in dogs with an electromagnetic flowmeter [6].
  • Femoral and renal blood flow and their responses to angiotensin II (AII) and its heptapeptide analogue, 1-des Asp AII (AIII), were measured with an electromagnetic flowmeter in 26 dogs [7].
  • Changes in blood flow in the celiac artery, superior mesenteric artery, and pancreas in response to an intravenous injection of synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) were determined simultaneously and continuously in anesthetized dogs, using a transit-time ultrasonic flowmeter and a laser-Doppler flowmeter [8].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: In 21 pigs anesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone (16) or alpha-chloralose (5), left circumflex blood flow was measured with an electromagnetic flowmeter [9].
  • Coronary flows in the left circumflex artery (LCx) and LAD were measured at rest and during adenosine infusion using velocity-encoded, breath-hold MRI and perivascular ultrasound (US) flowmeters [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Flowmeters

  • Visual grading, a laser Doppler flowmeter, a spectroradiometer, a two-channel erythema meter and a Minolta chroma meter were compared in the measurement of erythemas arising from immediate contact reactions produced either by 250 mM benzoic acid or 10 mM methyl nicotinate in petrolatum in an open application test or by ultraviolet irradiation [2].
  • The dynamics of LBF (H2 washout method), HAF and PVF (electromagnetic flowmeter) during 3-hours posthemorrhagic hypotension (90 min. = 50-60 mmHg; 90 min. = 25-30 mmHg) and one-hour postretransfusion period were investigated on 20 mongrel dogs under chloralose anesthesia [11].
  • The change in NCLBF values induced by the loading of anoxia and administration of epinephrine agreed very well with those obtained with a conventional contact-type laser Doppler flowmeter [12].
  • The activity of ibopamine (SB-7505), the 3,4-diisobutyryl ester of N-methyldopamine, on myocardial contractility and systemic and renal hemodynamics was investigated in the anesthetized dog with experimental infarction, instrumented with catheters and electromagnetic flowmeters [13].

Biological context of Flowmeters


Anatomical context of Flowmeters

  • Left anterior descending or circumflex coronary artery flow, measured by electromagnetic flowmeter, was successively reduced up to 90% with an extravascular hydraulic occluder, or else increased 40 to 60% through intravenous dipyridamole infusion (7 to 10 micrograms/kg per min) [19].
  • To study the mechanism of demyelination in the perineurial window model, we measured nerve blood flow (NBF) with a laser Doppler flowmeter before and after perineurial rupture in rat sciatic nerve and assessed the spatial distribution of demyelinated fibers, particularly in the nonherniated portion of the endoneurium [20].
  • Injections of diazoxide (0.3-27 mg) into the internal maxillary artery of unanesthetized goats produced dose-dependent increases in cerebral blood flow (electromagnetic flowmeter), this effect being significantly higher in hypertensive goats [21].
  • Diurnal IOP, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures, and optic nerve head (ONH) topography were measured every hour; and diurnal BF was measured by flowmeter every 2 hours between 0700 and 2200 hours [22].
  • Splenic blood flow has been measured in the dog using indium labelled autologous platelets (SBFp) and compared with splenic blood flow measured with an electromagnetic flowmeter placed on the splenic vein (SVBF) [23].

Associations of Flowmeters with chemical compounds

  • Seven mongrel dogs were chronically instrumented to measure ascending aortic blood flow (electromagnetic flowmeter); intrapericardial, right atrial, and aortic blood pressures; regional myocardial blood flow (radionuclide labelled microspheres); and myocardial consumption of lactate, pyruvate, and oxygen [24].
  • The laser Doppler flowmeter and the 133-Xenon washout techniques of measuring cutaneous blood flow were compared for measuring the vasoconstrictor response of the hand during orthostatic maneuvres [25].
  • Inulin clearance (CIn, ml/min/100 g body wt), renal blood flow (RBF; electromagnetic flowmeter, ml/min/100 g body wt), and fractional excretions of sodium, potassium and water (FENa, FEK and FEH2O, respectively), cholesterol (mg/dl), and albumin (g/dl) were measured 24 hours after radiocontrast administration [26].
  • In prepubertal pigs of both sexes anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone, changes in left circumflex or anterior descending coronary, superior mesenteric, left renal and left external iliac blood flow caused by intra-arterial infusion of testosterone were assessed using electromagnetic flowmeters [27].
  • Hazard of separate low and high flow O2 flowmeters: an interim solution [28].

Gene context of Flowmeters

  • Analysis of intrarenal blood flow by laser-Doppler flowmeter revealed that ET-1 caused a marked and sustained decrease in cortical blood flow, associated with a transient increase in medullary blood flow [29].
  • RBF was recorded by a flowmeter before infusion of AVP and immediately after injection of a bolus dose of 10 ng AVP [30].
  • FGF-2 gene-transferred limbs demonstrated significantly increased blood flow assessed not only by laser Doppler flow image but also by ultrasonic transit-time flowmeter (USTF) [31].
  • 1. The contributions of sensory nerves and nitric oxide (NO) to vasodilator responses to acetylcholine (ACh) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were examined in rat skin microvasculature with a laser Doppler flowmeter to monitor relative blood flow [32].
  • Intrathecal neuropeptide Y (100 ng-10 micrograms) in rats with intact sciatic nerves caused a moderate decrease in spinal cord dorsal surface blood flow as measured with a laser Doppler flowmeter [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Flowmeters

  • As part of the conversion to MDI/spacer, ED staff counseled patients on self-management and supplied patients with a peak flowmeter, an MDI/spacer, and an inhaled steroid for home use [34].
  • Among those with severe asthma, 47.5% used inhaled steroids or cromolyn, 52.8% used a spacer device if they had been prescribed a metered dose inhaler, and 21.2% of children older than 6 years were prescribed a peak flowmeter [35].
  • The local vascular response to the intradermal injection of lipopolysaccharide was determined by measuring changes in local blood flow with a laser-Doppler flowmeter [36].
  • A velocity-sensitive catheter-tip flowmeter was used to measure left coronary arterial blood flow prior to, during, and following left lateral thoracotomy in the artificially ventilated dog anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital [37].
  • Patch-test responses to serially diluted nickel sulphate and potassium dichromate solutions in patients with nickel and chrome sensitivity were assessed by pulsed A-scan ultrasound to determine skin thickness and laser-Doppler flowmeter techniques to evaluate blood flow, as well as clinical scoring [38].


  1. Tramadol has no effect on cortical renal blood flow--despite increased serum catecholamine levels--in anesthetized rats: implications for analgesia in renal insufficiency. Nagaoka, E., Minami, K., Shiga, Y., Uezono, Y., Shiraishi, M., Aoyama, K., Shigematsu, A. Anesth. Analg. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Assessment of skin erythema by eye, laser Doppler flowmeter, spectroradiometer, two-channel erythema meter and Minolta chroma meter. Lahti, A., Kopola, H., Harila, A., Myllylä, R., Hannuksela, M. Arch. Dermatol. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. ATP-induced cochlear blood flow changes involve the nitric oxide pathway. Ren, T., Nuttall, A.L., Miller, J.M. Hear. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Renal effects of mannitol in the early stage of glycerol-induced acute renal failure in the rat. Klein, H., Greven, J. Nephron (1979) [Pubmed]
  5. Vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. Yuan, S., Liu, Y., Zhu, L. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. The effect of altered sodium balance upon renal vascular reactivity to angiotensin II and norepinephrine in the dog. Mechanism of variation in angiotensin responses. Oliver, J.A., Cannon, P.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1978) [Pubmed]
  7. Angiotensin antagonists with increased specificity for the renal vasculature. Taub, K.J., Caldicott, W.J., Hollenberg, N.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide on splanchnic circulation in dogs. Kogire, M., Inoue, K., Sumi, S., Doi, R., Takaori, K., Yun, M., Fujii, N., Yajima, H., Tobe, T. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Reflex coronary vasoconstriction caused by gallbladder distension in anesthetized pigs. Vacca, G., Battaglia, A., Grossini, E., Mary, D.A., Molinari, C. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Measurement of absolute epicardial coronary artery flow and flow reserve with breath-hold cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Clarke, G.D., Eckels, R., Chaney, C., Smith, D., Dittrich, J., Hundley, W.G., NessAiver, M., Li, H.F., Parkey, R.W., Peshock, R.M. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Liver blood flow during haemorrhagic shock in the dog treated with phenoxybenzamine. Krnic, J., Hamamdzic, M., Duzic, E., Magazinovic, V. Acta physiologica Hungarica. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Focal damage to cochlear microcirculation measured using a non-contact laser blood flowmeter in guinea pigs. Iwasaki, S., Nagura, M., Miyashita, H., Umemura, K., Hoshino, T. Acta Otolaryngol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of ibopamine on acute cardiac failure following experimental coronary occlusion in dogs. Marchetti, G., Merlo, L. Arzneimittel-Forschung. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Reflex suppression of renin secretion during distention of cardiopulmonary receptors in dogs. Zehr, J.E., Hasbargen, J.A., Kurz, K.D. Circ. Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. Cholinergic cerebral vasodilator effect of ketamine in rabbits. Reicher, D., Bhalla, P., Rubinstein, E.H. Stroke (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Haemodynamic response to ketanserin in rabbits with Page hypertension: comparison with prazosin. Wright, C.E., Angus, J.A. J. Hypertens. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Zaprinast accelerates recovery from established acute renal failure in the rat. Guan, Z., Miller, S.B., Greenwald, J.E. Kidney Int. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Chronic effects of early started angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin AT1-receptor subtype blockade in rats with myocardial infarction: role of bradykinin. Hu, K., Gaudron, P., Anders, H.J., Weidemann, F., Turschner, O., Nahrendorf, M., Ertl, G. Cardiovasc. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Myocardial contrast two-dimensional echocardiography: experimental examination at different coronary flow levels. Ten Cate, F.J., Drury, J.K., Meerbaum, S., Noordsy, J., Feinstein, S., Shah, P.M., Corday, E. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Perineurial window: demyelination in nonherniated endoneurium with reduced nerve blood flow. Nukada, H., Powell, H.C., Myers, R.R. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. In vivo and In vitro studies on the cerebrovascular dilatation induced by diazoxide in normotensive and renal hypertensive goats. Estrada, C., Dieguez, G., Conde, M.V., Gómez, B., Lluch, S. Stroke (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. Anterior optic nerve capillary blood flow response to diurnal variation of mean ocular perfusion pressure in early untreated primary open-angle glaucoma. Sehi, M., Flanagan, J.G., Zeng, L., Cook, R.J., Trope, G.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Measurement of splenic blood flow in the anaesthetised dog using electromagnetic flowmetry and indium labelled platelets. Peters, A.M., Mathie, R.T., Walport, M.J., Reavy, H.J., Bell, R.N., Lavender, J.P. Cardiovasc. Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Coronary artery hemodynamics in conscious dog during cardiac tamponade. Klopfenstein, H.S., Bernath, G.A., Cogswell, T.L., Boerboom, L.E. Circ. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. The local regulation of blood flow evaluated simultaneously by 133-xenon washout and laser Doppler flowmetry. Engelhart, M., Petersen, L.J., Kristensen, J.K. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Hypercholesterolemia aggravates radiocontrast nephrotoxicity: protective role of L-arginine. Andrade, L., Campos, S.B., Seguro, A.C. Kidney Int. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. The effect of testosterone on regional blood flow in prepubertal anaesthetized pigs. Molinari, C., Battaglia, A., Grossini, E., Mary, D.A., Vassanelli, C., Vacca, G. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Hazard of separate low and high flow O2 flowmeters: an interim solution. Rendell-Baker, L., Klein, O.L., Charles, P. Anesthesiology (1982) [Pubmed]
  29. Effects of A-192621.1, a specific endothelin-B antagonist, on intrarenal hemodynamic responses to endothelin-1. Brodsky, S., Abassi, Z., Wessale, J., Ramadan, R., Winaver, J., Hoffman, A. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Renal hemodynamics in young and old spontaneously hypertensive rats during intrarenal infusion of arginine vasopressin. Christiansen, R.E., Roald, A.B., Gjerstad, C., Tenstad, O., Iversen, B.M. Kidney Blood Press. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Intramuscular gene transfer of FGF-2 attenuates endothelial dysfunction and inhibits intimal hyperplasia of vein grafts in poor-runoff limbs of rabbit. Shoji, T., Yonemitsu, Y., Komori, K., Tanii, M., Itoh, H., Sata, S., Shimokawa, H., Hasegawa, M., Sueishi, K., Maehara, Y. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Nitric oxide and sensory nerves are involved in the vasodilator response to acetylcholine but not calcitonin gene-related peptide in rat skin microvasculature. Ralevic, V., Khalil, Z., Dusting, G.J., Helme, R.D. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. The effects of intrathecal neuropeptide Y on the spinal nociceptive flexor reflex in rats with intact sciatic nerves and after peripheral axotomy. Xu, X.J., Hao, J.X., Hökfelt, T., Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z. Neuroscience (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. A comparison of albuterol administered by metered-dose inhaler and spacer with albuterol by nebulizer in adults presenting to an urban emergency department with acute asthma. Newman, K.B., Milne, S., Hamilton, C., Hall, K. Chest (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Reported difficulties in access to quality care for children with asthma in the inner city. Crain, E.F., Kercsmar, C., Weiss, K.B., Mitchell, H., Lynn, H. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Nitric oxide, but not interleukin-1, mediates the local blood flow response to lipopolysaccharide in rabbit skin. Pons, F., Williams, T.J., Warren, J.B. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. The effects of thoracotomy on coronary blood flow in the dog. Yeager, J.C., Haddy, F.J. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1977) [Pubmed]
  38. Dose-response relationships for topically applied antigens. Eun, H.C., Marks, R. Br. J. Dermatol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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