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Chemical Compound Review

AG-D-49031     disodium dichloride

Synonyms: AC1OCA64, CTK4B3168, AC1O4QU2, 12258-98-9, Disodium dichloride, ...
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Disease relevance of sodium chloride


High impact information on sodium chloride

  • Electroneutral Na-(K)-Cl cotransporters are present in most cell types, where they play an important role in both sodium-chloride absorption and secretion and cell volume regulation [4].
  • We have isolated cDNAs encoding the two major electroneutral sodium-chloride transporters present in the mammalian kidney, the bumetanide-sensitive Na(+)-K(+)-Cl- symporter and thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl- cotransporter, and have characterized their functional activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes [5].
  • To date, molecular genetic analyses have determined that mutations in the gene encoding the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride (Na-Cl) cotransporter underlie the pathogenesis of the Gitelman variant [6].
  • Within the kidney, WNKs probably regulate the surface expression of several proteins involved in ion transport, including the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCCT) and the potassium channel renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK), based on co-expression studies in Xenopus oocytes [7].
  • Salt taste is detected only when above salivary sodium-chloride concentrations; thus saliva influences salt taste threshold levels [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of sodium chloride

  • Renal factors assumed to be operative in juvenile hypertension are involving either volume control (by renal regulation of sodium-chloride and water balance) or vasoactive substances like the kallikrein-kinin, the renin-angiotensin and the prostaglandin system and other less well defined hormones [9].

Biological context of sodium chloride


Anatomical context of sodium chloride


Associations of sodium chloride with other chemical compounds


Gene context of sodium chloride


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of sodium chloride


  1. Active kallikrein response to changes in sodium-chloride intake in essential hypertensive patients. Ferri, C., Bellini, C., Carlomagno, A., Desideri, G., Santucci, A. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Sodium-chloride-induced protection in nephrotoxic acute renal failure: independence from renin. Bidani, A., Churchill, P., Fleischmann, L. Kidney Int. (1979) [Pubmed]
  3. Acetazolamide-mediated decrease in strong ion difference accounts for the correction of metabolic alkalosis in critically ill patients. Moviat, M., Pickkers, P., van der Voort, P.H., van der Hoeven, J.G. Critical care (London, England) (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular mechanisms of NaCl cotransport. Kaplan, M.R., Mount, D.B., Delpire, E. Annu. Rev. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular cloning, primary structure, and characterization of two members of the mammalian electroneutral sodium-(potassium)-chloride cotransporter family expressed in kidney. Gamba, G., Miyanoshita, A., Lombardi, M., Lytton, J., Lee, W.S., Hediger, M.A., Hebert, S.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Bartter syndrome: unraveling the pathophysiologic enigma. Guay-Woodford, L.M. Am. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. WNK kinases and the control of blood pressure. Cope, G., Golbang, A., O'Shaughnessy, K.M. Pharmacol. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Interaction of saliva and taste. Spielman, A.I. J. Dent. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Renal factors in juvenile hypertension. Scherer, B., Weber, P.C. Klin. Wochenschr. (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Biodiversity of cryopegs in permafrost. Gilichinsky, D., Rivkina, E., Bakermans, C., Shcherbakova, V., Petrovskaya, L., Ozerskaya, S., Ivanushkina, N., Kochkina, G., Laurinavichuis, K., Pecheritsina, S., Fattakhova, R., Tiedje, J.M. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Sodium-chloride transport in the medullary thick ascending limb of Henle's loop: evidence for a sodium-chloride cotransport system in plasma membrane vesicles. Eveloff, J., Kinne, R. J. Membr. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Developmental alterations and osmoregulatory physiology of a larval anuran under osmotic stress. Gomez-Mestre, I., Tejedo, M., Ramayo, E., Estepa, J. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Benzodiazepines inhibit transport-related oxygen consumption in thick ascending limb. Ziyadeh, F.N., Agus, Z.S. Am. J. Physiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Assessing genetic susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy. Tanaka, N., Babazono, T. Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Coupled sodium-chloride influx across brush border of flounder intestine. Frizzell, R.A., Smith, P.L., Vosburgh, E., Field, M. J. Membr. Biol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  16. Sodium-chloride sensitive receptors located in hepatic portal vein of the rat. Vallet, P., Baertschi, A.J. Neurosci. Lett. (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Gitelman syndrome: genetic and expression analysis of the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride transporter in blood cells. Riancho, J.A., Saro, G., Sañudo, C., Izquierdo, M.J., Zarrabeitia, M.T. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Integration of early light-inducible proteins into isolated thylakoid membranes. Kruse, E., Kloppstech, K. Eur. J. Biochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Caffeine potentiates the renin response to furosemide in rats. Evidence for a regulatory role of endogenous adenosine. Paul, S., Jackson, E.K., Robertson, D., Branch, R.A., Biaggioni, I. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Presence of a sodium-potassium chloride cotransport system in the rectal gland of Squalus acanthias. Hannafin, J., Kinne-Saffran, E., Friedman, D., Kinne, R. J. Membr. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Increased synthesis of specific proteins during glutamate-induced neuronal death in cerebellar culture. Dessi, F., Ben-Ari, Y., Charriaut-Marlangue, C. Brain Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. A new mutation (intron 9 +1 G>T) in the SLC12A3 gene is linked to Gitelman syndrome in Gypsies. Coto, E., Rodriguez, J., Jeck, N., Alvarez, V., Stone, R., Loris, C., Rodriguez, L.M., Fischbach, M., Seyberth, H.W., Santos, F. Kidney Int. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Linkage of Gitelman syndrome to the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter gene with identification of mutations in Dutch families. Lemmink, H.H., van den Heuvel, L.P., van Dijk, H.A., Merkx, G.F., Smilde, T.J., Taschner, P.E., Monnens, L.A., Hebert, S.C., Knoers, N.V. Pediatr. Nephrol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression of the sodium-chloride cotransporter in osteoblast-like cells: effect of thiazide diuretics. Barry, E.L., Gesek, F.A., Kaplan, M.R., Hebert, S.C., Friedman, P.A. Am. J. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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