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Chemical Compound Review

Friazole     (3S)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4- dimethyl-2-(1...

Synonyms: Clipper, Trimmit, Cultar, Parlay, ICI-PP 333, ...
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Disease relevance of Friazole


High impact information on Friazole

  • In addition, lep-1 is less responsive to GA and more sensitive to the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol, indicating that LEP is a positive regulator of GA-induced germination [4].
  • Conversely, a loss-of-function rgl1 line had reduced GA4 expression and exhibited GA-independent activation of seed germination, leaf expansion, flowering, stem elongation, and floral development, as detected by resistance to the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol [5].
  • Treatments with gibberellin (GA) and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, as well as crosses with GA-deficient mutants indicate that FPF1 is involved in a GA-dependent signaling pathway and modulates a GA response in apical meristems during the transition to flowering [6].
  • We have utilized a modified expression cloning strategy to identify a developmentally regulated gene from Drosophila melanogaster that encodes a RNase that we refer to as Clipper (CLP) [7].
  • Inclusion of exogenous gibberellic acid into the in vitro bud culture system with the paclobutrazol not only prevented the CHRC mRNA down-regulation, it up-regulated transcript accumulation to the level of gibberellic acid-treated corollas [8].

Biological context of Friazole

  • A similar phenotype was obtained when wild-type petunia plants were treated with the GA-biosynthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol [9].
  • The Visible Genetics Clipper sequencer is a new platform for automated DNA sequencing which employs disposable MicroCel cassettes and 50 microm thick polyacrylamide gels [1].
  • The inhibition of celery cell growth by paclobutrazol could be partially overcome by addition of cholesterol to the culture medium [10].
  • Both cultivars displayed more or less the same cell numbers (3.7 x 10(7) for Clipper and 3.2 x 10(7) cfu/g for Prisma) after the third day of germination [11].
  • Results showed that, irrespective of growth conditions, Sahara had much larger root biomass than Clipper and consequently substantially more P was allocated to roots in Sahara than in Clipper [12].

Anatomical context of Friazole


Gene context of Friazole

  • Furthermore, paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of gibberellin synthesis, induced a similar effect on control and transgenic dark-grown hypocotyls suggesting that gibberellin biosynthesis was probably not altered in seedlings overexpressing hFUT3 [15].
  • Gibberellic acid rapidly enhanced, whereas paclobutrazol down-regulated, the steady-state level of CHRD [16].
  • Recessive, presumed loss-of-function alleles of GAI confer normal height and resistance to the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol [17].
  • The isolation, cloning, and sequencing of two full-length cDNAs corresponding to the root tip forms of the maize (Zea mays L. cv Clipper) annexins p33 and p35 are described [18].
  • Inhibition of GA biosynthesis with paclobutrazol (PAC) prevented hook formation in wild-type (WT) seedlings and in constitutive ethylene response (ctr)1-1, a mutant that exhibits a constitutive ethylene response [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Friazole

  • With proper usage, the optical and electronic subsystems of the Clipper sequencer do not limit the data collection or sequence-determination processes [1].
  • Three (1----4)-beta-D-xylan xylanohydrolases (xylan endohydrolases, EC have been purified 1200-2800-fold from extracts of germinated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Clipper) by a sequence of ammonium sulphate fractionation, Procion-blue-dye chromatography, ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography [20].
  • Regulation of growth of Lilium plantlets in liquid medium by application of paclobutrazol or ancymidol, for its amenability in a bioreactor system: growth parameters [21].
  • A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) method has been developed for the determination of the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol in pear samples [22].


  1. High performance DNA sequencing, and the detection of mutations and polymorphisms, on the Clipper sequencer. Yager, T.D., Baron, L., Batra, R., Bouevitch, A., Chan, D., Chan, K., Darasch, S., Gilchrist, R., Izmailov, A., Lacroix, J.M., Marchelleta, K., Renfrew, J., Renfrew, J., Rushlow, D., Steinbach, E., Ton, C., Waterhouse, P., Zaleski, H., Dunn, J.M., Stevens, J. Electrophoresis (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of induction treatments on flowering in Populus deltoides. Yuceer, C., Kubiske, M.E., Harkess, R.L., Land, S.B. Tree Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Developmental toxicity potential of paclobutrazol in the rat. de Castro, V.L., Goes, K., Chiorato, S. International journal of environmental health research. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. A new role for the Arabidopsis AP2 transcription factor, LEAFY PETIOLE, in gibberellin-induced germination is revealed by the misexpression of a homologous gene, SOB2/DRN-LIKE. Ward, J.M., Smith, A.M., Shah, P.K., Galanti, S.E., Yi, H., Demianski, A.J., van der Graaff, E., Keller, B., Neff, M.M. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Arabidopsis RGL1 encodes a negative regulator of gibberellin responses. Wen, C.K., Chang, C. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. FPF1 promotes flowering in Arabidopsis. Kania, T., Russenberger, D., Peng, S., Apel, K., Melzer, S. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Cleavage of RNA hairpins mediated by a developmentally regulated CCCH zinc finger protein. Bai, C., Tolias, P.P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. CHRC, encoding a chromoplast-specific carotenoid-associated protein, is an early gibberellic acid-responsive gene. Vishnevetsky, M., Ovadis, M., Itzhaki, H., Vainstein, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. The role of SPY and its TPR domain in the regulation of gibberellin action throughout the life cycle of Petunia hybrida plants. Izhaki, A., Swain, S.M., Tseng, T.S., Borochov, A., Olszewski, N.E., Weiss, D. Plant J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Paclobutrazol inhibition of sterol biosynthesis in a cell suspension culture and evidence of an essential role for 24-ethylsterol in plant cell division. Haughan, P.A., Lenton, J.R., Goad, L.J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Isolation, identification and changes in the composition of lactic acid bacteria during the malting of two different barley cultivars. Booysena, C., Dicks, L.M., Meijering, I., Ackermann, A. Int. J. Food Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Phosphorus efficiencies and responses of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi grown in highly calcareous soil. Zhu, Y.G., Smith, F.A., Smith, S.E. Mycorrhiza (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of currently used pesticides in the AhR-CALUX assay: comparison between the human TV101L and the rat H4IIE cell line. Long, M., Laier, P., Vinggaard, A.M., Andersen, H.R., Lynggaard, J., Bonefeld-Jørgensen, E.C. Toxicology (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. A plant growth retardant, Uniconazole, is a potent inhibitor of ABA catabolism in Arabidopsis. Saito, S., Okamoto, M., Shinoda, S., Kushiro, T., Koshiba, T., Kamiya, Y., Hirai, N., Todoroki, Y., Sakata, K., Nambara, E., Mizutani, M. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Alteration of gibberellin response in transgenic tobacco plants which express a human Lewis fucosyltransferase. Joly, C., Maftah, A., Riou-Khamlichi, C. Plant Physiol. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Isolation and regulation of accumulation of a minor chromoplast-specific protein from cucumber corollas. Libal-Weksler, Y., Vishnevetsky, M., Ovadis, M., Vainstein, A. Plant Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular and physiological characterization of arabidopsis GAI alleles obtained in targeted Ds-tagging experiments. Peng, J., Richards, D.E., Moritz, T., Ezura, H., Carol, P., Harberd, N.P. Planta (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. cDNA isolation and gene expression of the maize annexins p33 and p35. Battey, N.H., James, N.C., Greenland, A.J. Plant Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Ethylene-mediated enhancement of apical hook formation in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings is gibberellin dependent. Vriezen, W.H., Achard, P., Harberd, N.P., Van Der Straeten, D. Plant J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Purification and characterization of three (1----4)-beta-D-xylan endohydrolases from germinated barley. Slade, A.M., Høj, P.B., Morrice, N.A., Fincher, G.B. Eur. J. Biochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Regulation of growth of Lilium plantlets in liquid medium by application of paclobutrazol or ancymidol, for its amenability in a bioreactor system: growth parameters. Thakur, R., Sood, A., Nagar, P.K., Pandey, S., Sobti, R.C., Ahuja, P.S. Plant Cell Rep. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Direct determination of paclobutrazol residues in pear samples by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Sancho, J.V., Pozo, O.J., Zamora, T., Grimalt, S., Hernández, F. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
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