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Gene Review

CHRD  -  chordin

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Chordin, UNQ217/PRO243
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Disease relevance of CHRD

  • In osteoarthritis, chordin was also found in the superficial layers (8.9 (1.1)%), though at a significantly higher level (24.7 (1.5)%) in the last two thirds of the cartilage [1].

High impact information on CHRD


Biological context of CHRD


Anatomical context of CHRD

  • The evolutionary conservation of Chordin/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling supports the hypothesis of dorsal-ventral axis inversion of vertebrates and invertebrates, and implies that the invention of a central nervous system occurred only once during animal evolution [12].
  • FRL-1MO also inhibited the expression of these genes in dorsal ectoderm, but did not affect the expression of chordin, which acts as a neural inducer from dorsal mesoderm [13].
  • High affinity binding of Chd sequesters the BMP ligands in the extracellular space, preventing interactions with their membrane receptors [7].
  • Unexpectedly, chordin overexpression reduced formation of both primary and secondary notochord [14].
  • (3) At the tailbud stage, among these pigment cell precursors, BMPb induces the differentiation of specifically the anterior type of pigment cell, the otolith; while posteriorly, CHORDIN suppresses BMP activity and allows ocellus differentiation [15].

Associations of CHRD with chemical compounds

  • Based on the size of the cystine ring, these proteins were divided into three subfamilies: CAN (eight-membered ring), twisted gastrulation (nine-membered ring), as well as chordin and noggin (10-membered ring) [16].
  • Gibberellic acid rapidly enhanced, whereas paclobutrazol down-regulated, the steady-state level of CHRD [9].
  • This site lies within a proteinase-resistant fragment of chordin, presumably a glycopeptide, of molecular mass between 2 and 10 kDa [17].
  • In a search for antigens immunologically related to chordin, a notochord-specific glycoprotein of sturgeneous fishes, extracts from 55 samples of human and rabbit tissues were tested for inhibition of [125I]chordin binding to rabbit polyclonal antibodies [18].

Enzymatic interactions of CHRD


Regulatory relationships of CHRD


Other interactions of CHRD

  • The CHRD and THPO genes are very close neighbours and are transcribed from opposing DNA strands from promoters that are spaced less than 2 kb apart [21].
  • However, mutation screening failed to identify CDLS patient-specific mutations in CHRD, GSC or SOX2 [21].
  • Consistent with this, morpholino-injected embryos have ventrally expanded chordin expression and reduced activation of the Bmp-dependent transcription factors Smad1/5/8 [22].
  • Outside the cell, soluble inhibitory proteins such as noggin, chordin, and follistatin can bind certain of the BMPs and inhibit their binding to cell surface receptors [23].
  • For example, the regulators of BMPs that include noggin, chordin, cerberus, dan, and gremlin may be harnessed as therapies to offset calcification encountered after total hip arthroplasties [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CHRD


  1. Differential regulation of the bone morphogenic protein antagonist chordin in human normal and osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Tardif, G., Pelletier, J.P., Hum, D., Boileau, C., Duval, N., Martel-Pelletier, J. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Cleavage of Chordin by Xolloid metalloprotease suggests a role for proteolytic processing in the regulation of Spemann organizer activity. Piccolo, S., Agius, E., Lu, B., Goodman, S., Dale, L., De Robertis, E.M. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Twisted gastrulation is a conserved extracellular BMP antagonist. Ross, J.J., Shimmi, O., Vilmos, P., Petryk, A., Kim, H., Gaudenz, K., Hermanson, S., Ekker, S.C., O'Connor, M.B., Marsh, J.L. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Bone morphogenetic proteins, their antagonists, and the skeleton. Canalis, E., Economides, A.N., Gazzerro, E. Endocr. Rev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Establishment of anterior-posterior polarity in avian embryos. Bachvarova, R.F. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Biglycan is a new extracellular component of the Chordin-BMP4 signaling pathway. Moreno, M., Muñoz, R., Aroca, F., Labarca, M., Brandan, E., Larraín, J. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. The human chordin gene encodes several differentially expressed spliced variants with distinct BMP opposing activities. Millet, C., Lemaire, P., Orsetti, B., Guglielmi, P., François, V. Mech. Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Coding sequence and expression patterns of mouse chordin and mapping of the cognate mouse chrd and human CHRD genes. Pappano, W.N., Scott, I.C., Clark, T.G., Eddy, R.L., Shows, T.B., Greenspan, D.S. Genomics (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Isolation and regulation of accumulation of a minor chromoplast-specific protein from cucumber corollas. Libal-Weksler, Y., Vishnevetsky, M., Ovadis, M., Vainstein, A. Plant Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. CHRD, a plant member of the evolutionarily conserved YjgF family, influences photosynthesis and chromoplastogenesis. Leitner-Dagan, Y., Ovadis, M., Zuker, A., Shklarman, E., Ohad, I., Tzfira, T., Vainstein, A. Planta (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Differential patterning of ventral midline cells by axial mesoderm is regulated by BMP7 and chordin. Dale, K., Sattar, N., Heemskerk, J., Clarke, J.D., Placzek, M., Dodd, J. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Regulation of neural determination by evolutionarily conserved signals: anti-BMP factors and what next? Sasai, Y. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. FRL-1, a member of the EGF-CFC family, is essential for neural differentiation in Xenopus early development. Yabe, S., Tanegashima, K., Haramoto, Y., Takahashi, S., Fujii, T., Kozuma, S., Taketani, Y., Asashima, M. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. The BMP signaling pathway is required together with the FGF pathway for notochord induction in the ascidian embryo. Darras, S., Nishida, H. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. The BMP/CHORDIN antagonism controls sensory pigment cell specification and differentiation in the ascidian embryo. Darras, S., Nishida, H. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparative genomic analysis of the eight-membered ring cystine knot-containing bone morphogenetic protein antagonists. Avsian-Kretchmer, O., Hsueh, A.J. Mol. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Monoclonal antibodies against chordin. Use in structural and immunohistochemical studies. Preobrazhensky, A.A., Rodionova, A.I., Trakht, I.N., Rukosuev, V.S. FEBS Lett. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. P-epitope is characteristic for the neural tissue of vertebrates. Preobrazhensky, A.A., Rodionova, A.I., Barabanov, V.M. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of the minimal domain structure of bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1) for chordinase activity: chordinase activity is not enhanced by procollagen C-proteinase enhancer-1 (PCPE-1). Petropoulou, V., Garrigue-Antar, L., Kadler, K.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. A role for the BMP antagonist chordin in endochondral ossification. Zhang, D., Ferguson, C.M., O'Keefe, R.J., Puzas, J.E., Rosier, R.N., Reynolds, P.R. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Genomic organisation of the human chordin gene and mutation screening of candidate Cornelia de Lange syndrome genes. Smith, M., Herrell, S., Lusher, M., Lako, L., Simpson, C., Wiestner, A., Skoda, R., Ireland, M., Strachan, T. Hum. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. A beta1,4-galactosyltransferase is required for Bmp2-dependent patterning of the dorsoventral axis during zebrafish embryogenesis. Machingo, Q.J., Fritz, A., Shur, B.D. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Mechanism for the action of bone morphogenetic proteins and regulation of their activity. Ebara, S., Nakayama, K. Spine. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Bone morphogenetic proteins: an update on basic biology and clinical relevance. Schmitt, J.M., Hwang, K., Winn, S.R., Hollinger, J.O. J. Orthop. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Regional specification of the head and trunk-tail organizers of a urodele (Cynops pyrrhogaster) embryo is patterned during gastrulation. Kaneda, T., Miyazaki, K., Kudo, R., Goto, K., Sakaguchi, K., Matsumoto, M., Todaka, S., Yoshinaga, K., Suzuki, A.S. Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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