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Chemical Compound Review

Syringol     2,6-dimethoxyphenol

Synonyms: Aldrich, PubChem10985, CHEBI:955, CHEMBL109652, SureCN156388, ...
 
 
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Disease relevance of Aldrich

 

Psychiatry related information on Aldrich

  • While the literatures on group process and organization development contain some work on intergroup phenomena (e.g., Aldrich, 1971; Baker and O'Brien, 1971; Klein et al., 1971; Mills, 1975; Walton, 1972), much conceptual work remains to be done [6].
  • The duration of cataplexy is usually a few seconds, although severe episodes can last several minutes and rarely several hours or days in the case of "status cataplecticus" (Parkes et al., 1974; Guilleminault, 1976; Billiard & Cadilhac, 1985; Aldrich, 1992; 1993) [7].
  • Cataplexy, an ancillary symptom of narcolepsy, involves the sudden loss of muscle tone without altered consciousness usually brought on by sudden excitement or emotional influence and extreme exertions (Guilleminault et al., 1974; Parks et al., 1974; Guilleminault, 1976; Aldrich, 1992; 1993; Scrima, 1981; Baker, 1985) [7].
 

High impact information on Aldrich

  • The 115 region between Pro-247 and Pro-271 in KAT1 contains 14 additional amino acids when compared with Shaker [Aldrich, R. W. (1993) Nature (London) 362, 107-108] [8].
  • CIP4 interacts with the GTP-bound form of cdc42, with the Wiscott Aldrich Syndrome group of proteins, and with microtubules, and exerts regulatory effects on cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking [9].
  • For the Drosophila Shaker K+ channel (ShB), the first 20 residues of the amino terminus have been identified as the inactivation ball that binds to the open channel pore and blocks ion flow (Hoshi, T., Zagotta, W. N., and Aldrich, R. W. (1990) Science 250, 533-538; Zagotta, W. N., Hoshi, T., and Aldrich, R. W. (1990) Science 250, 568-571) [10].
  • We further characterized the effects of the beta1 and beta2 subunits on the calcium and voltage sensitivity of the channel, analyzing the data in the context of an allosteric model for BK channel activation by calcium and voltage (Horrigan and Aldrich, 2002) [11].
  • The activation of unliganded mSlo1 channels can be accounted for by allosteric coupling between voltage sensor activation and the closed (C) to open (O) conformational change (Horrigan, F.T., and R.W. Aldrich. 1999. J. Gen. Physiol. 114:305-336; Horrigan, F.T., J. Cui, and R.W. Aldrich. 1999. J. Gen. Physiol. 114:277-304) [12].
 

Chemical compound and disease context of Aldrich

 

Biological context of Aldrich

  • A kinetic study of Sh(5) revealed that changes in the deactivation rate could account for the altered gating behavior (Zagotta, W.N., and R.W. Aldrich. 1990. J. Neurosci. 10:1799-1810), but the presence of intact fast inactivation precluded observation of the closing kinetics and steady state activation [14].
  • The A463C mutation in the S6 region of Shaker decreases the affinity of an internal ion binding site in the pore (Ogielska, E.M., and R.W. Aldrich, 1998) [15].
  • Three months of therapy reduces the number of infected hepatocytes at least 10-fold (W.S. Mason, J. Cullen, J. Saputelli, T.-T. Wu, C. Liu, W.T. London, E. Lustbader, P. Schaffer, A.P. O'Connell, I. Fourel, C.E. Aldrich, and A.R. Jilbert, Hepatology 19:393-411, 1994) [16].
  • These results differed markedly from those of previous experiments in which we had inserted the activated form of N-ras in the pSV(X) vector: the resulting SVN-ras virus was transforming on NIH 3T3 cells but was poorly oncogenic in vivo (M. Souyri, C. F. Koehne, P. V. O'Donnel, T. H. Aldrich, M. E. Furth, and E. Fleissner, Virology 158:69-78) [17].
  • Significant mutagenic activity was detected with a sample of this compound obtained from Aldrich (technical grade (Aldrich), TGA) both in the presence and in the absence of a rat-liver S9 metabolic activation mixture [18].
 

Anatomical context of Aldrich

  • In routine guaiacol assays for thyroid peroxidase and lactoperoxidase employing a newly purchased bottle of guaiacol from Aldrich Chemical Co., we were surprised to find the formation of a blue color instead of the expected amber color classically associated with this assay [19].
  • Aldrich/Clemmensen scores for myocardium at risk and the Selvester QRS score for final MI size were used [20].
  • Coronary calcifications appear in advanced atheromatous lesions therefore fluoroscopy is useful for the detection of the atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (Aldrich et al., 1979) [21].
 

Associations of Aldrich with other chemical compounds

  • Tempol (Aldrich, Milwaukee, WI, USA) is a cell-permeable hydrophilic nitroxide and has been shown to be an in vitro and in vivo radioprotector [22].
  • The oxidative dimerization of 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) to produce the corresponding dibenzoquinone was catalyzed by MtL in a manner comparable to that for a diffusion-controlled reaction (k(cat)/K(M) approximately = 10(8) M(-)(1) s(-)(1) and E(a) approximately = 18 kJ M(-)(1)) [23].
  • Degradation of TNT by Aldrich nickel catalyst resulted in apparent first-order kinetics [24].
  • The isoforms had different pH ranges for the oxidation of Mn(2+) and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol [25].
  • Also, Aldrich humic acid was found to be an effective quencher. pH effect on synchronous-scan fluorescence intensity of algal solution with Fe(III) and/or HA was evident [26].
 

Gene context of Aldrich

  • (Brenner, R., Jegla, T.J., Wickenden, A., Liu, Y., Aldrich, R.W. 2000. Cloning and functional expression of novel large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel beta subunits, hKCNMB3 and hKCNMB4. J. Biol. Chem.275:6453-6461.)[27]
  • These analytes are purified on boric acid gel from Aldrich, separated on a reversed-phase C18 column, and detected electrochemically at +600 mV [28].
  • Presentation of the C. Anderson Aldrich award to Anna Freud [29].
  • 4 patients with osteopetrosis (n = 2), MLD (n = 1), Wiskott Aldrich dis [30].
  • Affinity-purified human antibodies to continuous epitopes spanning Ala582 do not neutralize the virus (C. Wilson, M. S. Reitz, Jr., K. Aldrich, P. J. Klasse, J. Blomberg, R. C. Gallo, and M. J. Robert-Guroff, J. Virol. 64, 3240-3248, 1990) [31].
 

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Aldrich

  • By use of silica-based HPLC columns with chemically immobilized humic acid (Aldrich, Zigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), the retention of PAC to humic acid can be measured, and the results can, when they are compared to those from a blank column, be used to a direct determination of Koc [32].
  • Parallel experiments with ultrafiltration (UF) fractions obtained from purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) (Aldrich Chemical, Milwaukee, WI) gave similar results [33].
  • As none of these plant bioassays can detect tumor initiation or cancerous growth, the chemicals were categorized as carcinogens based on their characteristics defined by the U.S. EPA's Superfund Priority 1 List and/or by the chemical listings of the Sigma and Aldrich Chemical Companies [34].

References

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  2. Appearance of abnormal Q waves early in the course of acute myocardial infarction: implications for efficacy of thrombolytic therapy. Raitt, M.H., Maynard, C., Wagner, G.S., Cerqueira, M.D., Selvester, R.H., Weaver, W.D. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Gating kinetics of four classes of voltage-dependent K+ channels in pheochromocytoma cells. Hoshi, T., Aldrich, R.W. J. Gen. Physiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Kinetic analysis of single sodium channels from canine cardiac Purkinje cells. Scanley, B.E., Hanck, D.A., Chay, T., Fozzard, H.A. J. Gen. Physiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. The prevention by sulphydryl compounds of the toxicity in the cat of 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and its morpholinopropionyl ester. Loveless, A.H., Maxwell, D.R. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. The mental health center and the women's liberation group: an intergroup encounter. Bayes, M., Whisnant, L., Wilk, L.A. Psychiatry. (1977) [Pubmed]
  7. Resolution of partial cataplexy in multiple sclerosis by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields. Sandyk, R. Int. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Changes in voltage activation, Cs+ sensitivity, and ion permeability in H5 mutants of the plant K+ channel KAT1. Becker, D., Dreyer, I., Hoth, S., Reid, J.D., Busch, H., Lehnen, M., Palme, K., Hedrich, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. AKAP350 interaction with cdc42 interacting protein 4 at the Golgi apparatus. Larocca, M.C., Shanks, R.A., Tian, L., Nelson, D.L., Stewart, D.M., Goldenring, J.R. Mol. Biol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. A mammalian transient type K+ channel, rat Kv1.4, has two potential domains that could produce rapid inactivation. Kondoh, S., Ishii, K., Nakamura, Y., Taira, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Differential effects of beta 1 and beta 2 subunits on BK channel activity. Orio, P., Latorre, R. J. Gen. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Coupling between voltage sensor activation, Ca2+ binding and channel opening in large conductance (BK) potassium channels. Horrigan, F.T., Aldrich, R.W. J. Gen. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Chemical inactivation of retroviral infectivity by targeting nucleocapsid protein zinc fingers: a candidate SIV vaccine. Arthur, L.O., Bess, J.W., Chertova, E.N., Rossio, J.L., Esser, M.T., Benveniste, R.E., Henderson, L.E., Lifson, J.D. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Determinants of voltage-dependent gating and open-state stability in the S5 segment of Shaker potassium channels. Kanevsky, M., Aldrich, R.W. J. Gen. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Functional consequences of a decreased potassium affinity in a potassium channel pore. Ion interactions and C-type inactivation. Ogielska, E.M., Aldrich, R.W. J. Gen. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Evidence that hepatocyte turnover is required for rapid clearance of duck hepatitis B virus during antiviral therapy of chronically infected ducks. Fourel, I., Cullen, J.M., Saputelli, J., Aldrich, C.E., Schaffer, P., Averett, D.R., Pugh, J., Mason, W.S. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Oncogenicity of human N-ras oncogene and proto-oncogene introduced into retroviral vectors. Souyri, M., Vigon, I., Charon, M., Tambourin, P. J. Virol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. The nonmutagenicity of purified 4-amino-2-nitrophenol in Salmonella typhimurium. Shahin, M.M., Bugaut, A., Junino, A., Kalopissis, G. Carcinogenesis (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. An unexpected side reaction in the guaiacol assay for peroxidase. Taurog, A., Dorris, M.L., Guziec, F.S. Anal. Biochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Electrocardiographic infarct size assessment after thrombolysis: insights from the Acute Myocardial Infarction STudy ADenosine (AMISTAD) trial. Barbagelata, A., Di Carli, M.F., Califf, R.M., Garg, J., Birnbaum, Y., Grinfeld, L., Gibbons, R.J., Granger, C.B., Goodman, S.G., Wagner, G.S., Mahaffey, K.W. Am. Heart J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Clinical importance of coronary calcification detected by CT. Masuda, Y., Naito, S., Uda, T., Yamada, Z., Morooka, N., Watanabe, S., Inagaki, Y. Acta cardiologica. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Evaluation of the hydroxylamine Tempol-H as an in vivo radioprotector. Hahn, S.M., Krishna, M.C., DeLuca, A.M., Coffin, D., Mitchell, J.B. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Thermostability of native and pegylated Myceliophthora thermophila laccase in aqueous and mixed solvents. López-Cruz, J.I., Viniegra-Gonzalez, G., Hernández-Arana, A. Bioconjug. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Degradation of explosives-related compounds using nickel catalysts. Fuller, M.E., Schaefer, C.E., Lowey, J.M. Chemosphere (2007) [Pubmed]
  25. Differential regulation of manganese peroxidases and characterization of two variable MnP encoding genes in the white-rot fungus Physisporinus rivulosus. Hakala, T.K., Hild??n, K., Maijala, P., Olsson, C., Hatakka, A. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Synchronous-scan fluorescence spectra of Chlorella vulgaris solution. Liu, X., Tao, S., Deng, N. Chemosphere (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Properties of BK(Ca) channels formed by bicistronic expression of hSloalpha and beta1-4 subunits in HEK293 cells. Lippiat, J.D., Standen, N.B., Harrow, I.D., Phillips, S.C., Davies, N.W. J. Membr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Simultaneous determination of catecholamines and serotonin by liquid chromatography, after treatment with boric acid gel. Imai, Y., Ito, S., Maruta, K., Fujita, K. Clin. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Presentation of the C. Anderson Aldrich award to Anna Freud. Solnit, A.J. Pediatrics (1975) [Pubmed]
  30. Haploidentical bone marrow transplantation in leukemia and genetic diseases. Andolina, M., Maximova, N., Rabusin, M., Vujic, D., Bunjevacki, G., Vidali, C., Beorchia, A. Haematologica (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. An immune-selected point mutation in the transmembrane protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HXB2-Env:Ala 582(-->Thr)) decreases viral neutralization by monoclonal antibodies to the CD4-binding site. Klasse, P.J., McKeating, J.A., Schutten, M., Reitz, M.S., Robert-Guroff, M. Virology (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. The application of high-performance liquid chromatography humic acid columns in determination of Koc of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Jonassen, K.E., Nielsen, T., Hansen, P.E. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Effects of mineral surfaces on pyrene partitioning to well-characterized humic substances. Hur, J., Schlautman, M.A. J. Environ. Qual. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Genotoxic agents detected by plant bioassays. Ma, T.H., Cabrera, G.L., Owens, E. Reviews on environmental health. (2005) [Pubmed]
 
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