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Gene Review

PRNT  -  prion protein (testis specific)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: M8, Protein M8
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Disease relevance of PRNT

  • The classical assay to measure vaccinia neutralization, the plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT), is slow, labor intensive, and difficult to validate and transfer [1].
  • The BHK semimicro PRNT compared favorably in terms of sensitivity in detecting dengue antibody (96%), specificity at a screening dilution (95%), and ability to detect seroconversion to dengue viruses of three serotypes (93%) [2].
  • ELISA testing, a less complex and less time-consuming test, correlates well with PRNT and is proposed for additional trials to measure yellow fever 17D vaccine response in flavivirus non-immune subjects [3].
  • We tested serum samples from 256 Cameroonian adults from nine rural villages for the presence of Dengue-2 (DEN-2), West Nile (WN), Yellow fever (YF), Chikungunya (CHIK), O'nyong-nyong (ONN), Sindbis (SIN), and Tahyna (TAH) infection using standard plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRNT) [4].
  • However, difficulties have been encountered in using the PRNT for LCM virus, while conflicting views have been expressed about the reliability and efficacy of the test with Lassa virus [5].

High impact information on PRNT


Biological context of PRNT

  • Moreover, SLE virus seroconversions detected in pigeons by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test frequently could not be confirmed either by a plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) on the same sera, or by an HI test on the next monthly serum sample from the same bird [9].
  • The RFFIT for detection of neutralizing antibodies to TBE-virus has an advantage over the standard PRNT in its easy and rapid performance (results are obtained in 1 vs 7 days), and over the HI in its specificity, since cross-reactions with other flaviviruses are minimized [10].
  • RESULTS: In all cultured viruses, the serotypes identified by nRT-PCR/RFLP were consistent with those of PRNT. nRT-PCR/RFLP results indicated the presence of Hantaan virus in 10 patients and of Seoul virus in 15 patients [11].
  • Public health laboratories currently use an immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) as a primary test for human serodiagnosis, followed by a confirmatory plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) [12].
  • The grouping of positives within few nests, highest PRNT titers in youngest birds (<1 weeks of age), the decline of titer with nestling age, and the lack of antibody specificity indicated that antibody may have been acquired maternally and did not represent new infections [13].

Anatomical context of PRNT

  • Contrastingly, although PRND shows a wide tissue expression pattern in fetal tissues, it is expressed exclusively in adult testis, whereas all three PRNT isoforms were detected only in adult testis, implying that PRND is developmentally regulated [14].

Associations of PRNT with chemical compounds

  • There was no significant difference in peak antibody titer by plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT) between the group that took chloroquine (mean log peak of reciprocal titer 1.43 +/- SD 0.60) with vaccine subcutaneously compared to vaccine-only group (mean log peak of reciprocal titer = 1.21 +/- 0.55) [3].

Other interactions of PRNT


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PRNT


  1. Development of a novel vaccinia-neutralization assay based on reporter-gene expression. Manischewitz, J., King, L.R., Bleckwenn, N.A., Shiloach, J., Taffs, R., Merchlinsky, M., Eller, N., Mikolajczyk, M.G., Clanton, D.J., Monath, T., Weltzin, R.A., Scott, D.E., Golding, H. J. Infect. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Simplified plaque reduction neutralization assay for dengue viruses by semimicro methods in BHK-21 cells: comparison of the BHK suspension test with standard plaque reduction neutralization. Morens, D.M., Halstead, S.B., Repik, P.M., Putvatana, R., Raybourne, N. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. The effect of chloroquine prophylaxis on yellow fever vaccine antibody response: comparison of plaque reduction neutralization test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Barry, M., Patterson, J.E., Tirrell, S., Cullen, M.R., Shope, R.E. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Seroprevalence and distribution of Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, and Bunyaviridae arboviral infections in rural Cameroonian adults. Kuniholm, M.H., Wolfe, N.D., Huang, C.Y., Mpoudi-Ngole, E., Tamoufe, U., LeBreton, M., Burke, D.S., Gubler, D.J. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Standardization of a plaque assay for Lassa virus. Tomori, O., Johnson, K.M., Kiley, M.P., Elliott, L.H. J. Med. Virol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Numerous polymorphic microsatellites in the human prion gene complex (including PRNP, PRND and PRNT). Preuss, S., Peischl, T., Melchinger, E., Geldermann, H. Gene (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Potential application of nonstructural protein NS1 serotype-specific immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the seroepidemiologic study of dengue virus infection: correlation of results with those of the plaque reduction neutralization test. Shu, P.Y., Chen, L.K., Chang, S.F., Yueh, Y.Y., Chow, L., Chien, L.J., Chin, C., Yang, H.H., Lin, T.H., Huang, J.H. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. The effects of yellow fever immunization (17DD) inadvertently used in early pregnancy during a mass campaign in Brazil. Suzano, C.E., Amaral, E., Sato, H.K., Papaiordanou, P.M. Vaccine (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Evaluation of domestic pigeons as sentinels for detecting arbovirus activity in southern California. Reisen, W.K., Hardy, J.L., Presser, S.B. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. A rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test for detection of neutralizing antibodies to tick-borne encephalitis virus. Vene, S., Haglund, M., Vapalahti, O., Lundkvist, A. J. Virol. Methods (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Detection of Hantaan and Seoul viruses by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in renal syndrome patients with hemorrhagic fever. Ahn, C., Cho, J.T., Lee, J.G., Lim, C.S., Kim, Y.Y., Han, J.S., Kim, S., Lee, J.S. Clin. Nephrol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Duplex microsphere-based immunoassay for detection of anti-West Nile virus and anti-St. Louis encephalitis virus immunoglobulin m antibodies. Johnson, A.J., Noga, A.J., Kosoy, O., Lanciotti, R.S., Johnson, A.A., Biggerstaff, B.J. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Nesting Ardeid colonies are not a focus of elevated West Nile virus activity in southern California. Reisen, W.K., Wheeler, S.S., Yamamoto, S., Fang, Y., Garcia, S. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Genomic characterization of the human prion protein (PrP) gene locus. Makrinou, E., Collinge, J., Antoniou, M. Mamm. Genome (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. A dengue outbreak among camp participants in a Caribbean island, 1995. Lyerla, R., Rigau-Pérez, J.G., Vorndam, A.V., Reiter, P., George, A.M., Potter, I.M., Gubler, D.J. Journal of travel medicine : official publication of the International Society of Travel Medicine and the Asia Pacific Travel Health Association. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of chimpanzee Fab fragments by repertoire cloning and production of a full-length humanized immunoglobulin G1 antibody that is highly efficient for neutralization of dengue type 4 virus. Men, R., Yamashiro, T., Goncalvez, A.P., Wernly, C., Schofield, D.J., Emerson, S.U., Purcell, R.H., Lai, C.J. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Rift Valley fever virus vaccine trial: study of neutralizing antibody response in humans. Niklasson, B., Peters, C.J., Bengtsson, E., Norrby, E. Vaccine (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Incidence of sand fly fever among Swedish United Nations soldiers on Cyprus during 1985. Eitrem, R., Vene, S., Niklasson, B. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1990) [Pubmed]
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