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Gene Review

PRND  -  prion protein 2 (dublet)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: DOPPEL, DPL, PrPLP, Prion protein 2, Prion-like protein doppel, ...
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Disease relevance of PRND

  • The human PRND open reading frame has been shown to contain polymorphic codons, but research on a correlation between the PRND polymorphic sequences and neurodegenerative disorders carried out to date in different populations have shown contradictory results [1].
  • First report of polymorphisms in the prion-like protein gene (PRND): implications for human prion diseases [2].
  • Differential expression of the prion-like protein doppel gene (PRND) in astrocytomas: a new molecular marker potentially involved in tumor progression [3].
  • Understanding of the mechanisms of PRND increased expression might provide insight into the regulatory pathways of glioma development [3].
  • PRND expression was directly related to malignancy of the tumor: highest in glioblastoma multiforme, lower in anaplastic astrocytoma and even lower in the low-grade astrocytoma samples [3].

Psychiatry related information on PRND

  • The authors present a study on the association of PRNP and PRND gene polymorphisms with the occurrence and age at onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) [4].
  • This result suggests that the PRND polymorphism at 3' UTR +28 might be associated with the occurrence of sporadic CJD [5].

High impact information on PRND

  • We assessed clonality of 42 tumorlets and 15 normal tissues from four females with DPL by analyzing X chromosome inactivation as indicated by the methylation status of the androgen receptor gene (HUMARA) [6].
  • Two of six DPL lesions karyotyped had cytogenetic abnormalities involving chromosomes 7, 12, and 18, suggesting a pathogenesis in common with uterine leiomyomas [6].
  • Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis (DPL, leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata) is a rare condition in which multiple histologically benign smooth muscle tumorlets diffusely stud peritoneal and omental surfaces in females, predominantly of reproductive age [6].
  • Rapid blockade of telomerase activity and tumor cell growth by the DPL lipofection of ribbon antisense to hTR [7].
  • Liposomes were prepared from various conventional lipids and from a novel photopolymerizable phosphatidylcholine derivative (DPL, bis[1,2-(methacryloyloxy)dodecanoyl]-L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine) [8].

Biological context of PRND

  • Further analysis demonstrated that the genomic structure of three genes, PRNP, PRND, and RASSF2, within the syntenic region of the bovine genome is highly conserved in order and orientation [9].
  • The current study does not demonstrate any significant difference in T174M PRND genotype or allele frequencies between AD patients and controls [10].
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of genetic variation in the prion-like protein gene (PRND), which encodes the doppel protein (Dpl), in the aetiology of human prion diseases [2].
  • Unlike the non-tumoral controls, PRND was aberrantly expressed in glioblastoma multiforme and in two glioblastoma multiforme-derived cell lines, even in the absence of the PRND gene amplification [3].
  • A significant difference appeared also between early-onset (<70 years) and late-onset (> or = 70 years) AD patients in the PRND genotypes [4].

Anatomical context of PRND

  • Contrastingly, although PRND shows a wide tissue expression pattern in fetal tissues, it is expressed exclusively in adult testis, whereas all three PRNT isoforms were detected only in adult testis, implying that PRND is developmentally regulated [11].
  • In this study the doppel gene (PRND) mRNA and protein expression in PRT-HU2 and IPDDC-A2 astrocytoma-derived cell lines was investigated [12].
  • In conclusion, this is the first time that the expression of PRND has been demonstrated in human bone marrow [13].
  • Alloreactive lymphocytes primed against donor HLA antigens (DPL) or unrelated HLA antigens from a third party (TPL) were studied for their adherence to HAEC derived from organ transplant donors [14].
  • The distal pressure line of the Gundry DLP RCSP retrograde cardioplegia cannula (DPL, Inc., Grand Rapids, Mich.) was connected to a transducer, flushed, and then introduced into the right atrium [15].

Associations of PRND with chemical compounds

  • This means that at 59-60 degrees C, the order of catalytic activity follows the lipid sequence DML less than DPOL less than DAL less than DOL much less than DPL = DEL less than DSL [16].
  • At temperatures where bilayers formed from dimyristoyl- or dipalmitoyllecithin (DML and DPL, respectively) are "crystalline", hexose transport activity is not observed [16].
  • We recorded the absorption spectra of the Schiff bases of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and 5'-deoxypyridoxal (DPL) with dodecylamine (DOD) at different pH values [17].
  • Cholesterol (48 mol%) restores protein-mediated transport activity to crystalline DPL bilayers and reduces the activity supported by fluid DPL bilayers [16].
  • We have prepared lipid vesicles (liposomes) composed of polymerized bis[12-(methacryloyloxy)dodecanoyl]-L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (DPL) which contain the antifungal polyene antibiotic amphotericin B (AMB) [18].

Other interactions of PRND

  • Therefore, the role of the PRND gene in CJD and other diseases still remains unexplained [1].
  • Real-time PRND gene expression profiling, after normalisation with GAPDH, revealed large differences between low (WHO I and II) and high grade (III and IV) of malignancy (P<0.001) [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PRND

  • The PRNP and PRND expression profiles were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR in low- and high-grade astrocytomas, in glioblastoma-derived cell lines and in non-glial tumor specimens [3].
  • Further, we conducted a meta-analysis on PRND T174M comparing the data of the four studies conducted to date [20].
  • Sequence analysis of the BAC clone revealed that the ovine Prnd gene is located around 52 kb downstream of the Prnp locus [21].
  • METHODS: Charts of 106 patients with blunt hepatic injuries from July 1, 1991 to June 30, 1995 were reviewed for method of abdominal evaluation (computed tomography versus DPL), injury severity score, liver injury grade, method of management, length of stay (LOS), transfusion requirements, complications, and outcome [22].
  • This policy reduced unnecessary laparotomy, otherwise warranted by DPL, to 18% (2/11); both patients had Grade II splenic injuries [23].


  1. Doppel: the prion's double. Golańiska, E., Flirski, M., Liberski, P.P. Folia neuropathologica / Association of Polish Neuropathologists and Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. First report of polymorphisms in the prion-like protein gene (PRND): implications for human prion diseases. Peoc'h, K., Guérin, C., Brandel, J.P., Launay, J.M., Laplanche, J.L. Neurosci. Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Differential expression of the prion-like protein doppel gene (PRND) in astrocytomas: a new molecular marker potentially involved in tumor progression. Comincini, S., Facoetti, A., Del Vecchio, I., Peoc'h, K., Laplanche, J.L., Magrassi, L., Ceroni, M., Ferretti, L., Nano, R. Anticancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Polymorphisms within the prion (PrP) and prion-like protein (Doppel) genes in AD. Golanska, E., Hulas-Bigoszewska, K., Rutkiewicz, E., Styczynska, M., Peplonska, B., Barcikowska, M., Bratosiewicz-Wasik, J., Liberski, P.P. Neurology (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Polymorphism at 3' UTR +28 of the prion-like protein gene is associated with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Jeong, B.H., Kim, N.H., Choi, E.K., Lee, C., Song, Y.H., Kim, J.I., Carp, R.I., Kim, Y.S. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis. Clonality analysis by X chromosome inactivation and cytogenetics of a clinically benign smooth muscle proliferation. Quade, B.J., McLachlin, C.M., Soto-Wright, V., Zuckerman, J., Mutter, G.L., Morton, C.C. Am. J. Pathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Rapid blockade of telomerase activity and tumor cell growth by the DPL lipofection of ribbon antisense to hTR. Bajpai, A.K., Park, J.H., Moon, I.J., Kang, H., Lee, Y.H., Doh, K.O., Suh, S.I., Chang, B.C., Park, J.G. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Interactions of conventional or photopolymerized liposomes with platelets in vitro. Juliano, R.L., Hsu, M.J., Peterson, D., Regen, S.L., Singh, A. Exp. Cell Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Comparative genomic organization of the human and bovine PRNP locus. Choi, S.H., Kim, I.C., Kim, D.S., Kim, D.W., Chae, S.H., Choi, H.H., Choi, I., Yeo, J.S., Song, M.N., Park, H.S. Genomics (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Polymorphism at codon 174 of the prion-like protein gene is not associated with sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Infante, J., Llorca, J., Rodero, L., Palacio, E., Berciano, J., Combarros, O. Neurosci. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Genomic characterization of the human prion protein (PrP) gene locus. Makrinou, E., Collinge, J., Antoniou, M. Mamm. Genome (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Nuclear mRNA retention and aberrant doppel protein expression in human astrocytic tumor cells. Comincini, S., Chiarelli, L.R., Zelini, P., Del Vecchio, I., Azzalin, A., Arias, A., Ferrara, V., Rognoni, P., Dipoto, A., Nano, R., Valentini, G., Ferretti, L. Oncol. Rep. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Overexpression of the Doppel protein in acute myeloid leukaemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. Travaglino, E., Comincini, S., Benatti, C., Azzalin, A., Nano, R., Rosti, V., Ferretti, L., Invernizzi, R. Br. J. Haematol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Adherence of alloreactive lymphocytes to human arterial endothelial cell monolayers. Colson, Y.L., Markus, B.H., Zeevi, A., Duquesnoy, R.J. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Optimal delivery of cardioplegic solution for "redo" operations. Gundry, S.R., Razzouk, A.J., Vigesaa, R.E., Wang, N., Bailey, L.L. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Human erythrocyte hexose transporter activity is governed by bilayer lipid composition in reconstituted vesicles. Carruthers, A., Melchior, D.L. Biochemistry (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Spectroscopic study of the Schiff bases of dodecylamine with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and 5'-deoxypyridoxal. A model for the Schiff bases of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in biological systems. Vázquez, M.A., Muñoz, F., Donoso, J., García Blanco, F. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Polymerized phospholipid vesicles containing amphotericin B: evaluation of toxic and antifungal activities in vitro. Mehta, R., Hsu, M.J., Juliano, R.L., Krause, H.J., Regen, S.L. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Diagnostic value of PRND gene expression profiles in astrocytomas: Relationship to tumor grades of malignancy. Comincini, S., Ferrara, V., Arias, A., Malovini, A., Azzalin, A., Ferretti, L., Benericetti, E., Cardarelli, M., Gerosa, M., Passarin, M.G., Turazzi, S., Bellazzi, R. Oncol. Rep. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Polymorphisms in the prion protein gene and in the doppel gene increase susceptibility for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Croes, E.A., Alizadeh, B.Z., Bertoli-Avella, A.M., Rademaker, T., Vergeer-Drop, J., Dermaut, B., Houwing-Duistermaat, J.J., Wientjens, D.P., Hofman, A., Van Broeckhoven, C., van Duijn, C.M. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Sequence determination and expression of the ovine doppel-encoding gene in transgenic mice. Essalmani, R., Taourit, S., Besnard, N., Vilotte, J.L. Gene (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Trends in the management of hepatic injury. Brasel, K.J., DeLisle, C.M., Olson, C.J., Borgstrom, D.C. Am. J. Surg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Selective management of blunt abdominal trauma in children--the triage role of peritoneal lavage. Rothenberg, S., Moore, E.E., Marx, J.A., Moore, F.A., McCroskey, B.L. The Journal of trauma. (1987) [Pubmed]
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