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Gene Review

HIV2gp4  -  vpr protein

Human immunodeficiency virus 2

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Disease relevance of HIV2gp4


Psychiatry related information on HIV2gp4


High impact information on HIV2gp4


Chemical compound and disease context of HIV2gp4


Biological context of HIV2gp4


Anatomical context of HIV2gp4


Associations of HIV2gp4 with chemical compounds

  • The phosphorothioate oligonucleotides, targeted to the initiating methionine of the Vpr protein, had an inhibitory effect at both 20 and 10 microM only when the size was increased from 24 to 27 bases [22].
  • Thus, conservation of Vpx/Vpr protein functions in caprine cells suggests a possible role for these proteins in the virus life cycle and its ability to adapt to new hosts [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HIV2gp4


  1. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr-mediated G(2) cell cycle arrest: Vpr interferes with cell cycle signaling cascades by interacting with the B subunit of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A. Hrimech, M., Yao, X.J., Branton, P.E., Cohen, E.A. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 forms cation-selective channels in planar lipid bilayers. Piller, S.C., Ewart, G.D., Premkumar, A., Cox, G.B., Gage, P.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Development of a novel anti-HIV-1 agent from within: effect of chimeric Vpr-containing protease cleavage site residues on virus replication. Serio, D., Rizvi, T.A., Cartas, M., Kalyanaraman, V.S., Weber, I.T., Koprowski, H., Srinivasan, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Mutagenesis of the putative alpha-helical domain of the Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: effect on stability and virion incorporation. Mahalingam, S., Khan, S.A., Murali, R., Jabbar, M.A., Monken, C.E., Collman, R.G., Srinivasan, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. The human immunodeficiency virus type 2 vpr gene is essential for productive infection of human macrophages. Hattori, N., Michaels, F., Fargnoli, K., Marcon, L., Gallo, R.C., Franchini, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Extracellular Vpr protein increases cellular permissiveness to human immunodeficiency virus replication and reactivates virus from latency. Levy, D.N., Refaeli, Y., Weiner, D.B. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. A domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr containing repeated H(S/F)RIG amino acid motifs causes cell growth arrest and structural defects. Macreadie, I.G., Castelli, L.A., Hewish, D.R., Kirkpatrick, A., Ward, A.C., Azad, A.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Synthetic Vpr protein activates activator protein-1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and NF-kappaB and stimulates HIV-1 transcription in promonocytic cells and primary macrophages. Varin, A., Decrion, A.Z., Sabbah, E., Quivy, V., Sire, J., Van Lint, C., Roques, B.P., Aggarwal, B.B., Herbein, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Vpr-mediated incorporation of UNG2 into HIV-1 particles is required to modulate the virus mutation rate and for replication in macrophages. Chen, R., Le Rouzic, E., Kearney, J.A., Mansky, L.M., Benichou, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Docking of HIV-1 Vpr to the nuclear envelope is mediated by the interaction with the nucleoporin hCG1. Le Rouzic, E., Mousnier, A., Rustum, C., Stutz, F., Hallberg, E., Dargemont, C., Benichou, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 binds to 14-3-3 proteins and facilitates complex formation with Cdc25C: implications for cell cycle arrest. Kino, T., Gragerov, A., Valentin, A., Tsopanomihalou, M., Ilyina-Gragerova, G., Erwin-Cohen, R., Chrousos, G.P., Pavlakis, G.N. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Human immunodeficiency virus vpr gene encodes a virion-associated protein. Yuan, X., Matsuda, Z., Matsuda, M., Essex, M., Lee, T.H. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. A carboxy-terminally truncated form of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr protein induces apoptosis via G(1) cell cycle arrest. Nishizawa, M., Kamata, M., Katsumata, R., Aida, Y. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Open reading frame vpr of simian immunodeficiency virus encodes a virion-associated protein. Yu, X.F., Matsuda, M., Essex, M., Lee, T.H. J. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vpr protein transactivation function: mechanism and identification of domains involved. Forget, J., Yao, X.J., Mercier, J., Cohen, E.A. J. Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Uracil DNA glycosylase specifically interacts with Vpr of both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus of sooty mangabeys, but binding does not correlate with cell cycle arrest. Selig, L., Benichou, S., Rogel, M.E., Wu, L.I., Vodicka, M.A., Sire, J., Benarous, R., Emerman, M. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr protein binds to the uracil DNA glycosylase DNA repair enzyme. Bouhamdan, M., Benichou, S., Rey, F., Navarro, J.M., Agostini, I., Spire, B., Camonis, J., Slupphaug, G., Vigne, R., Benarous, R., Sire, J. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Interaction of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr protein with the nuclear pore complex. Fouchier, R.A., Meyer, B.E., Simon, J.H., Fischer, U., Albright, A.V., González-Scarano, F., Malim, M.H. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Two putative alpha-helical domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr mediate nuclear localization by at least two mechanisms. Kamata, M., Aida, Y. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. HIV-1 Vpr displays natural protein-transducing properties: implications for viral pathogenesis. Sherman, M.P., Schubert, U., Williams, S.A., de Noronha, C.M., Kreisberg, J.F., Henklein, P., Greene, W.C. Virology (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. The HIV-1 accessory gene vpr can inhibit antigen-specific immune function. Muthumani, K., Hwang, D.S., Dayes, N.S., Kim, J.J., Weiner, D.B. DNA Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides targeted to the vpr gene inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in primary human macrophages. Balotta, C., Lusso, P., Crowley, R., Gallo, R.C., Franchini, G. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Specific G2 arrest of caprine cells infected with a caprine arthritis encephalitis virus expressing vpr and vpx genes from simian immunodeficiency virus. Bouzar, A.B., Guiguen, F., Morin, T., Villet, S., Fornazero, C., Garnier, C., Gallay, K., Gounel, F., Favier, C., Durand, J., Balleydier, S., Mornex, J.F., Narayan, O., Chebloune, Y. Virology (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Biochemical mechanism of HIV-1 Vpr function. Oligomerization mediated by the N-terminal domain. Zhao, L.J., Wang, L., Mukherjee, S., Narayan, O. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of extracellular human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vpr protein in primary rat cortical cell cultures. Huang, M.B., Weeks, O., Zhao, L.J., Saltarelli, M., Bond, V.C. J. Neurovirol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Identification and localization of vpr gene product of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Sato, A., Igarashi, H., Adachi, A., Hayami, M. Virus Genes (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. A synthetic protein corresponding to the entire vpr gene product from the human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 is recognized by antibodies from HIV-infected patients. Gras-Masse, H., Ameisen, J.C., Boutillon, C., Gesquière, J.C., Vian, S., Neyrinck, J.L., Drobecq, H., Capron, A., Tartar, A. Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
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