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Gene Review

ace-4  -  Protein ACE-4

Caenorhabditis elegans

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Disease relevance of acetylcholinesterase

  • In summary, in chronic trichostrongylosis even relatively low nematode burdens were associated with marked pathological and biochemical damage in the intestine with both lesion severity and mucosal acetylcholinesterase activity being directly related to worm numbers [1].

Psychiatry related information on acetylcholinesterase


High impact information on acetylcholinesterase


Biological context of acetylcholinesterase


Anatomical context of acetylcholinesterase


Associations of acetylcholinesterase with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of acetylcholinesterase

  • A null mutation in ace-1 (allele p1000) suppresses all acetylcholinesterase activity of class A. We have identified an opal mutation TGG (W99)-->TGA (Stop) as the only alteration in the mutated gene [20].

Other interactions of acetylcholinesterase

  • Derivatives homozygous only for the ace-1 mutation also lacked class A acetylcholinesterase forms, but were behaviorally and developmentally indistinguishable from wild type [9].
  • Although originally isolated because of its uncoordinated behavior, this strain was subsequently shown to harbor mutations in two genes; one in the previously identified gene unc-3, accounting for its behavior, and one in a newly identified gene, ace-1, accounting for its selective acetylcholinesterase deficiency [9].
  • Total extracts from three different dys-1 alleles showed significantly less acetylcholinesterase-specific activity than wild-type controls [21].
  • Mutations in the dystrophin-like dys-1 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans result in reduced acetylcholinesterase activity [21].
  • Although a snf-11 null mutation has no obvious effects on GABAergic behaviors, it leads to resistance to inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of acetylcholinesterase


  1. Intestinal enzyme activity in lambs chronically infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis: effect of anthelmintic treatment. Jones, D.G. Vet. Parasitol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Functional genomics of nematode acetylcholinesterases. Selkirk, M.E., Lazari, O., Matthews, J.B. Parasitology (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Muscle-specific expression of a gene affecting acetylcholinesterase in the nematode caenorhabditis elegans. Herman, R.K., Kari, C.K. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Serotonin inhibition of synaptic transmission: Galpha(0) decreases the abundance of UNC-13 at release sites. Nurrish, S., Ségalat, L., Kaplan, J.M. Neuron (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. The acetylcholinesterase genes of C. elegans: identification of a third gene (ace-3) and mosaic mapping of a synthetic lethal phenotype. Johnson, C.D., Rand, J.B., Herman, R.K., Stern, B.D., Russell, R.L. Neuron (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Synaptic transmission deficits in Caenorhabditis elegans synaptobrevin mutants. Nonet, M.L., Saifee, O., Zhao, H., Rand, J.B., Wei, L. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Caenorhabditis elegans rab-3 mutant synapses exhibit impaired function and are partially depleted of vesicles. Nonet, M.L., Staunton, J.E., Kilgard, M.P., Fergestad, T., Hartwieg, E., Horvitz, H.R., Jorgensen, E.M., Meyer, B.J. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. The C-terminal T Peptide of cholinesterases: structure, interactions, and influence on protein folding and secretion. Massouli??, J., Bon, S. J. Mol. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. An acetylcholinesterase-deficient mutant of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Johnson, C.D., Duckett, J.G., Culotti, J.G., Herman, R.K., Meneely, P.M., Russell, R.L. Genetics (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. Determinants of substrate specificity of a second non-neuronal secreted acetylcholinesterase from the parasitic nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Hussein, A.S., Smith, A.M., Chacón, M.R., Selkirk, M.E. Eur. J. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. A tryptophan amphiphilic tetramerization domain-containing acetylcholinesterase from the bovine lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus. Matthews, J.B., Lazari, O., Davidson, A.J., Warren, S., Selkirk, M.E. Parasitology (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Structure and promoter activity of the 5' flanking region of ace-1, the gene encoding acetylcholinesterase of class A in Caenorhabditis elegans. Culetto, E., Combes, D., Fedon, Y., Roig, A., Toutant, J.P., Arpagaus, M. J. Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Mutation of the feh-1 gene, the Caenorhabditis elegans orthologue of mammalian Fe65, decreases the expression of two acetylcholinesterase genes. Bimonte, M., Gianni, D., Allegra, D., Russo, T., Zambrano, N. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Generation of monoclonal antibodies to characterize antigens of the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Bohn, A., König, W. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Mikrobiologie, und Hygiene. Series A, Medical microbiology, infectious diseases, virology, parasitology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. The production of synthetic chemodisruptive peptides in planta disrupts the establishment of cyst nematodes. Liu, B., Hibbard, J.K., Urwin, P.E., Atkinson, H.J. Plant Biotechnol. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Acetylcholine metabolism in the inflamed rat intestine. Davis, K.A., Masella, J., Blennerhassett, M.G. Exp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Properties and partial purification of choline acetyltransferase from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Rand, J.B., Russell, R.L. J. Neurochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of acetylcholinesterase molecular forms of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne. Chang, S., Opperman, C.H. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Changes in the acetylcholinesterase activity of the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis following treatment with benzimidazoles in vivo. Rapson, E.B., Lee, D.L., Watts, S.D. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of a null mutation in ace-1, the gene encoding class A acetylcholinesterase in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Talesa, V., Culetto, E., Schirru, N., Bernardi, H., Fedon, Y., Toutant, J.P., Arpagaus, M. FEBS Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Mutations in the dystrophin-like dys-1 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans result in reduced acetylcholinesterase activity. Giugia, J., Gieseler, K., Arpagaus, M., Ségalat, L. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. The Caenorhabditis elegans snf-11 gene encodes a sodium-dependent GABA transporter required for clearance of synaptic GABA. Mullen, G.P., Mathews, E.A., Saxena, P., Fields, S.D., McManus, J.R., Moulder, G., Barstead, R.J., Quick, M.W., Rand, J.B. Mol. Biol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular cloning of an acetylcholinesterase gene from the plant parasitic nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica. Piotte, C., Arthaud, L., Abad, P., Rosso, M.N. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Vaccination against the nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis. II. Attempts to protect guinea-pigs with worm acetylcholinesterase. Rothwell, T.L., Merritt, G.C. Int. J. Parasitol. (1975) [Pubmed]
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