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Gene Review

Cd44  -  Cd44 molecule

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: CD44 antigen, CD44A, ECMR-III, Extracellular matrix receptor III, GP90 lymphocyte homing/adhesion receptor, ...
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Disease relevance of Cd44


High impact information on Cd44

  • RHAMM (Receptor for Hyaluronic Acid Mediated Motility) has been identified as a receptor for the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan (HA) and was recently shown to be essential for the locomotion of normal and transformed peripheral cells [3].
  • Glial cells contained 50 and 72 kDa forms of RHAMM, and both of these forms were found to have HA binding capacity [3].
  • Here, we report that cultured primary astrocytes, astrocyte cell lines, and microglia express this receptor and exhibit RHAMM-dependent motility [3].
  • Time lapse imaging of cell locomotion revealed a significant inhibition of motility and process elongation by neutralizing anti-RHAMM antibodies and by peptides corresponding to the HA binding domains of RHAMM [3].
  • The ability of hyaluronic acid to compete with the labelled ligands for binding suggested that the binding site is identical with the recently described hyaluronate receptor on the liver endothelial cells [Smedsrød, Pertoft, Eriksson, Fraser & Laurent (1984) Biochem. J. 223, 617-626] [4].

Biological context of Cd44


Anatomical context of Cd44

  • Besides, cell activation was still evident 45 days after the silicone injection: activated macrophages exhibited an increased expression of adhesion (CD54 and CD44) and co-stimulatory molecules (CD86) and an enhanced production of oxidant metabolites and NO [7].
  • Astrocyte and microglial motility in vitro is functionally dependent on the hyaluronan receptor RHAMM [3].
  • Since the receptor directly regulates protein kinase signaling which in turn mediates smooth muscle cell contraction and collagen synthesis, further studies of RHAMM function in bladder pathology are warranted [6].
  • RHAMM immunolocalized to the mucosa and detrusor within 2 hours of injury, peaking by 5 to 10 hours [6].
  • The hyaluronan receptor RHAMM in noradrenergic fibers contributes to axon growth capacity of locus coeruleus neurons in an intraocular transplant model [8].

Other interactions of Cd44

  • Nor could ligands for scavenger receptors and antibodies directed towards ICAM-1, CD 44 and RHAMM (Receptor for HA Mediated Motility) significantly inhibit the association of HA to tumour cells [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cd44


  1. Development of a bispecific F(ab')2 conjugate against the complement receptor CR3 of macrophages and a variant CD44 antigen of rat pancreatic adenocarcinoma for redirecting macrophage-mediated tumor cytotoxicity. Somasundaram, C., Arch, R., Matzku, S., Zöller, M. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Heparin and the phenotype of adult human vascular smooth muscle cells. Sorger, T., Friday, N., Yang, L.D., Levine, E.M. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Astrocyte and microglial motility in vitro is functionally dependent on the hyaluronan receptor RHAMM. Turley, E.A., Hossain, M.Z., Sorokan, T., Jordan, L.M., Nagy, J.I. Glia (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Endocytosis and degradation of chondroitin sulphate by liver endothelial cells. Smedsrød, B., Kjellén, L., Pertoft, H. Biochem. J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Extracellular matrix gene responses in a novel ex vivo model of bladder stretch injury. Capolicchio, G., Aitken, K.J., Gu, J.X., Reddy, P., Bägli, D.J. J. Urol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. The hyaluronic acid receptor RHAMM is induced by stretch injury of rat bladder in vivo and influences smooth muscle cell contraction in vitro [corrected]. Bägli, D.J., Joyner, B.D., Mahoney, S.R., McCulloch, L. J. Urol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Activation of macrophages by silicones: phenotype and production of oxidant metabolites. Iribarren, P., Correa, S.G., Sodero, N., Riera, C.M. BMC Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. The hyaluronan receptor RHAMM in noradrenergic fibers contributes to axon growth capacity of locus coeruleus neurons in an intraocular transplant model. Nagy, J.I., Price, M.L., Staines, W.A., Lynn, B.D., Granholm, A.C. Neuroscience (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Studies on the interaction between hyaluronan and a rat colon cancer cell line. Samuelsson, C., Gustafson, S. Glycoconj. J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Isolation of rat pgp3 cDNA: evidence for gender and zonal regulation of expression in the liver. Furuya, K.N., Gebhardt, R., Schuetz, E.G., Schuetz, J.D. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Changes in CD44 and ApoE immunoreactivities due to retinal pathology of man and rat. Kuhrt, H., Härtig, W., Grimm, D., Faude, F., Kasper, M., Reichenbach, A. Journal für Hirnforschung. (1997) [Pubmed]
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