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Gene Review

Cd44  -  CD44 antigen

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AU023126, AW121933, AW146109, ECMR-III, Extracellular matrix receptor III, ...
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Disease relevance of Cd44


High impact information on Cd44

  • In the transitional B cells, early markers of differentiation such as Pgp1 (CD44) and ThB reach the highest level of expression, while the expression of CD23 and mIgD, late markers of differentiation, and expression of class II MHC, progressively increases [5].
  • Thy-1, Pgp-1 and CD45R expression on both normal and induced gamma/delta T cells was consistent with an activation phenotype [6].
  • Also in male but not female alpha/beta TCR transgenic mice, the CD8+ cells with the transgenic TCR bear the Pgp1 marker characteristic of mature T cells activated by antigen [7].
  • Previous studies in humans and mice have implicated Pgp-1/CD44-related glycoproteins in the migration of peripheral lymphoid cells, as well as interactions of cells with the extracellular matrix [8].
  • A cell adhesion model was previously used to select a series of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which were subsequently found to recognize CD44/Pgp-1 [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cd44


Biological context of Cd44

  • Allografting induces the down-regulation of gp90 and up-regulation of Pgp-1 on a subset of cells, resulting in the appearance of CD8+gp90-Pgp-1hi (Pop. 3) cells [11].
  • However, cells from WT and CD44-deficient mice with collagen-induced arthritis showed distinct migration kinetics upon transfer to arthritic recipients [1].
  • To investigate whether signals activated by adhesion receptors have a similar activity, we analyzed the effect of CD44 (Pgp-1) adhesion molecule receptor stimulation on T-cell apoptosis induced by three stimuli (anti-CD3 MoAbs, dexamethasone [DEX] treatment, and exposure to ultraviolet irradiation [UV]) on a 3DO T-cell line [12].
  • The identification of a new alternative exon with highly restricted tissue expression in transcripts encoding the mouse Pgp-1 (CD44) homing receptor. Comparison of all 10 variable exons between mouse, human, and rat [13].
  • Portions of the deduced amino acid sequence were identical to those obtained by amino acid sequence analysis from the purified glycoprotein, confirming that the cDNA encodes Pgp-1 [14].

Anatomical context of Cd44


Associations of Cd44 with chemical compounds

  • The predicted structure of Pgp-1 includes an NH2-terminal extracellular domain (residues 14-265), a transmembrane domain (residues 266-286), and a cytoplasmic tail (residues 287-358) [14].
  • In contrast, C71/26 and other MoAbs against Pgp-1 inhibited platelet-dependent cytotoxicity of antibody-coated sheep erythrocytes in the presence of C5-deficient mouse plasma whereas M1/70 against CR3 showed no effect [17].
  • We show that the ionomycin-resistant cell population is enriched for cells that express high levels of Pgp-1 (CD44), and low levels of CD45RB, and thus appears to consist largely of memory T cells [18].
  • A high percentage of cells recovered after 7 to 14 days from IL-7-supplemented LSC resembled the earliest detectable fetal thymocytes with regard to cell surface markers: they expressed Pgp-1, lacked CD4, CD8, and CD3 and many expressed the IL-2R [19].
  • We used the monoclonal mouse anti-human phagocytic glycoprotein-1 CD44 (clone DF 1485), on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue [20].

Regulatory relationships of Cd44


Other interactions of Cd44

  • The strong expression of CD44 antigen on abnormal double negative T cells of lymph nodes was characteristic in MRL-lpr mice [21].
  • Mac-1 and B220 were absent from all fibroblastic cells studied, whereas the Forsmann and Pgp-1 antigens were always present [22].
  • Following activation Pgp-1, the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor (as detected by the monoclonal antibody 7D4) and the peanut agglutinin (PNA) receptor were gained by a proportion of cells, MEL-14 was lost by a proportion of cells, and no change was observed in the expression of heat stable antigen [23].
  • During T cell development, however, changes in expression of Pgp-1, MEL-14, the IL-2 receptor and the PNA receptor may be associated with activation, rather than differentiation per se [23].
  • Using CcS-19, one of the highly susceptible RC strains, we mapped a novel colon tumor susceptibility gene, Scc-1, different from the oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes known to be involved in colon tumorigenesis, in the vicinity of CD44 (Ly-24, Pgp-1) on chromosome 2 [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cd44


  1. Trafficking of CD44-deficient murine lymphocytes under normal and inflammatory conditions. Stoop, R., Gál, I., Glant, T.T., McNeish, J.D., Mikecz, K. Eur. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. T-cell lymphomas emerging as epineoplasms in mice bearing transplanted polyoma virus-induced salivary gland tumors. Dawe, C.J., Freund, R., Abromson-Leeman, S.R., Dubensky, T.W., Carroll, J., Dorf, M.E., Benjamin, T.L. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Specific selection of host cell glycoproteins during assembly of murine leukaemia virus and vesicular stomatitis virus: presence of Thy-1 glycoprotein and absence of H-2, Pgp-1 and T-200 glycoproteins on the envelopes of these virus particles. Calafat, J., Janssen, H., Démant, P., Hilgers, J., Závada, J. J. Gen. Virol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Direct demonstration of the infiltration of murine central nervous system by Pgp-1/CD44high CD45RB(low) CD4+ T cells that induce experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Zeine, R., Owens, T. J. Neuroimmunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Transitional B cells are the target of negative selection in the B cell compartment. Carsetti, R., Köhler, G., Lamers, M.C. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Induction of murine peritoneal gamma/delta T cells and their role in resistance to bacterial infection. Skeen, M.J., Ziegler, H.K. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. An unusual lineage of alpha/beta T cells that contains autoreactive cells. von Boehmer, H., Kirberg, J., Rocha, B. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Monoclonal antibodies to Pgp-1/CD44 block lympho-hemopoiesis in long-term bone marrow cultures. Miyake, K., Medina, K.L., Hayashi, S., Ono, S., Hamaoka, T., Kincade, P.W. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Hyaluronate can function as a cell adhesion molecule and CD44 participates in hyaluronate recognition. Miyake, K., Underhill, C.B., Lesley, J., Kincade, P.W. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Binding of hyaluronic acid to lymphoid cell lines is inhibited by monoclonal antibodies against Pgp-1. Lesley, J., Schulte, R., Hyman, R. Exp. Cell Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of adhesion molecule expression by CD8 T cells in vivo. I. Differential regulation of gp90MEL-14 (LECAM-1), Pgp-1, LFA-1, and VLA-4 alpha during the differentiation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes induced by allografts. Mobley, J.L., Dailey, M.O. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. CD44 (Pgp-1) inhibits CD3 and dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. Ayroldi, E., Cannarile, L., Migliorati, G., Bartoli, A., Nicoletti, I., Riccardi, C. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. The identification of a new alternative exon with highly restricted tissue expression in transcripts encoding the mouse Pgp-1 (CD44) homing receptor. Comparison of all 10 variable exons between mouse, human, and rat. Screaton, G.R., Bell, M.V., Bell, J.I., Jackson, D.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. The cDNA sequence of mouse Pgp-1 and homology to human CD44 cell surface antigen and proteoglycan core/link proteins. Wolffe, E.J., Gause, W.C., Pelfrey, C.M., Holland, S.M., Steinberg, A.D., August, J.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Gene for a major cell surface glycoprotein of mouse macrophages and other phagocytic cells is on chromosome 2. Colombatti, A., Hughes, E.N., Taylor, B.A., August, J.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of adhesion molecule expression by CD8 T cells in vivo. II. Expression of L-selectin (CD62L) by memory cytolytic T cells responding to minor histocompatibility antigens. Mobley, J.L., Rigby, S.M., Dailey, M.O. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Polymorphic glycoprotein-1 on mouse platelets: possible role of Pgp-1 and LFA-1 in antibody-dependent platelet cytotoxicity involving complement. McCaffery, P.J., Tan, A.S., Berridge, M.V. Blood (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Differential sensitivity of virgin and memory T lymphocytes to calcium ionophores suggests a buoyant density separation method and a model for memory cell hyporesponsiveness to Con A. Miller, R.A., Flurkey, K., Molloy, M., Luby, T., Stadecker, M.J. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of IL-7 on the growth of fetal thymocytes in culture. Watson, J.D., Morrissey, P.J., Namen, A.E., Conlon, P.J., Widmer, M.B. J. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Glycoprotein CD44 expression in benign, premalignant and malignant epithelial lesions of the larynx: an immunohistochemical study including correlation with Rb, p53, Ki-67 and PCNA. Ioachim, E., Assimakopoulos, D., Goussia, A.C., Peschos, D., Skevas, A., Agnantis, N.J. Histol. Histopathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Dysregulated expression of cellular adhesion molecules in autoimmune-prone mice. Wang, W., Kobayashi, S., Uede, T. J. Dermatol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Characterization of fibroblastic stromal cells from murine bone marrow. Piersma, A.H., Brockbank, K.G., Ploemacher, R.E., van Vliet, E., Brakel-van Peer, K.M., Visser, P.J. Exp. Hematol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. The surface phenotype of activated T lymphocytes. Kelly, K., Shortman, K., Scollay, R. Immunol. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Scc-1, a novel colon cancer susceptibility gene in the mouse: linkage to CD44 (Ly-24, Pgp-1) on chromosome 2. Moen, C.J., Snoek, M., Hart, A.A., Demant, P. Oncogene (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Molecular cloning and expression of Pgp-1. The mouse homolog of the human H-CAM (Hermes) lymphocyte homing receptor. Zhou, D.F., Ding, J.F., Picker, L.J., Bargatze, R.F., Butcher, E.C., Goeddel, D.V. J. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
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