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Gene Review

Gnpda1  -  glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: GNPDA, GNPDA 1, GlcN6P deaminase 1, Glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 1, Glucosamine-6-phosphate isomerase 1, ...
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Disease relevance of Gnpda1

  • It was reported that a hamster protein, called "oscillin," with a sequence related to that of an Escherichia coli GNPDA triggered Ca(2+) oscillations in mammalian oocytes when introduced into their cytoplasm upon fertilization [1].
  • We have therefore compared the effects of various novel dimethanesulfonate compounds (related to BU) in terms of their toxicity to different stem cell subsets in vivo and in vitro and their ability to provide for long-term donor bone marrow engraftment using the congenic glucose-6-phosphate isomerase type 1 marker [2].
  • Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) is the target autoantigen recognized by KRN T cells in the K/BxN model of rheumatoid arthritis [3].

High impact information on Gnpda1

  • To investigate B cell tolerance to GPI in nonautoimmune mice, we increased the GPI-reactive B cell frequency using a low affinity anti-GPI H chain transgene [4].
  • Importantly, the LN anti-GPI B cells remained functionally competent and could be induced to secrete autoantibodies in response to cognate T cell help in vitro and in vivo [4].
  • B cell clones with anti-GPI specificities were present at extraordinarily high frequencies in the spleen, and less frequently in other lymphoid organs and in the synovial fluid [5].
  • Pathogenicity was not associated with recognition of a particular epitope, but the ability to form mAb/GPI multimers by simultaneous recognition of different epitopes was clearly required, consistent with the known role of complement and FcRs in this model [5].
  • Analysis of the chimerism by glucose- 6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) assay revealed that alpha5 -/- cells contributed to all the tissues analyzed [6].

Biological context of Gnpda1


Anatomical context of Gnpda1

  • Immunofluorescent analysis of the localization of GNPDA in male reproductive tissue revealed its presence in spermatids and in spermatozoa [11].
  • These data suggest that GNPDA might play a role in the acrosome reaction [11].
  • In the mouse, the nature and role of such a GNPDA/oscillin is not known, but another candidate protein, tr-kit, has been proposed as a sperm factor causing oocyte activation [1].
  • Unlike tr-kit mRNA which is expressed solely in mouse testis, GNPDA/oscillin mRNA is detected in unfertilized oocytes and in all tissues examined including testis, heart, thymus, liver, ovary, uterus, kidney, spleen, and lung [1].
  • To begin dissecting the repertoire of arthritogenic immunoglobulins (Igs) in the K/BxN model, and to provide a basis for comparison with RA patients we have generated anti-GPI monoclonal Abs (mAbs) from spontaneously activated B cells in the lymphoid organs of arthritic mice [5].

Associations of Gnpda1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Gnpda1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gnpda1

  • We report here the molecular cloning and sequencing of mouse GNPDA/oscillin, which shows over 96% identity with the hamster and human homologs [1].
  • Indirect immunofluorescence studies, using an antibody raised against hamster GNPDA, demonstrate that GNPDA is lost with the acrosome reaction of mouse spermatozoa, is localized in the equatorial and neck regions of the human spermatozoa and the post-acrosomal region of the hamster spermatozoa [1].
  • Recipient C57BL/6J (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase b) mice that received 3-Gy total-body irradiation and 13 Gy to the right hind limb were injected i.v. with GB1/6 cells [16].
  • The isoenzymes of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) have been used as markers to distinguish the contribution of host and donor tissues to these allografts [17].
  • Irradiated host mice were reconstituted with bone marrow cells from a second strain of mice: the two strains were each homozygous for one of the two different isoenzyme forms of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, which enable cells of the two strains to be identified by different isoenzyme mobilities on starch gel electrophoresis [18].


  1. Cloning, sequencing, and expression analysis of mouse glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase (GNPDA/oscillin). Amireault, P., Dubé, F. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparison of different busulfan analogues for depletion of hematopoietic stem cells and promotion of donor-type chimerism in murine bone marrow transplant recipients. Westerhof, G.R., Ploemacher, R.E., Boudewijn, A., Blokland, I., Dillingh, J.H., McGown, A.T., Hadfield, J.A., Dawson, M.J., Down, J.D. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Differential MHC class II presentation of a pathogenic autoantigen during health and disease. Shih, F.F., Racz, J., Allen, P.M. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Autoreactive marginal zone B cells are spontaneously activated but lymph node B cells require T cell help. Mandik-Nayak, L., Racz, J., Sleckman, B.P., Allen, P.M. J. Exp. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Arthritogenic monoclonal antibodies from K/BxN mice. Maccioni, M., Zeder-Lutz, G., Huang, H., Ebel, C., Gerber, P., Hergueux, J., Marchal, P., Duchatelle, V., Degott, C., van Regenmortel, M., Benoist, C., Mathis, D. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Dystrophic muscle in mice chimeric for expression of alpha5 integrin. Taverna, D., Disatnik, M.H., Rayburn, H., Bronson, R.T., Yang, J., Rando, T.A., Hynes, R.O. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Massive thymic deletion results in systemic autoimmunity through elimination of CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells. Shih, F.F., Mandik-Nayak, L., Wipke, B.T., Allen, P.M. J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Correction of a genetically caused enzyme defect by somatic cell hybridization. Cori, C.F., Gluecksohn-Waelsch, S., Shaw, P.A., Robinson, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Interleukin-4 can be a key positive regulator of inflammatory arthritis. Ohmura, K., Nguyen, L.T., Locksley, R.M., Mathis, D., Benoist, C. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Use of mononuclear precursor cells to insert allogeneic genes into growing mouse muscles. Watt, D.J., Morgan, J.E., Partridge, T.A. Muscle Nerve (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of testicular mouse glucosamine 6-phosphate deaminase (GNPDA). Montag, M., van der Ven, K., Dörbecker, C., van der Ven, H. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Cytotoxic mechanisms of glutamine antagonists in mouse L1210 leukemia. Lyons, S.D., Sant, M.E., Christopherson, R.I. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Partial characterization of the calcium-releasing activity of porcine sperm cytosolic extracts. Wu, H., He, C.L., Jehn, B., Black, S.J., Fissore, R.A. Dev. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Immune reactivity to connective tissue antigens in pristane induced arthritis. Morgan, R., Wu, B., Song, Z., Wooley, P.H. J. Rheumatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Characterization of the CaNAG3, CaNAG4, and CaNAG6 genes of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans: possible involvement of these genes in the susceptibilities of cytotoxic agents. Yamada-Okabe, T., Yamada-Okabe, H. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Engraftment of a clonal bone marrow stromal cell line in vivo stimulates hematopoietic recovery from total body irradiation. Anklesaria, P., Kase, K., Glowacki, J., Holland, C.A., Sakakeeny, M.A., Wright, J.A., FitzGerald, T.J., Lee, C.Y., Greenberger, J.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Factors which affect the fusion of allogeneic muscle precursor cells in vivo. Watt, D.J. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Skeletal muscle precursors do not arise from bone marrow cells. Grounds, M.D. Cell Tissue Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
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