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Gene Review

ACACA  -  acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha

Bos taurus

Synonyms: ACC1, ACCA
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High impact information on ACACA

  • Exposure of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) to chemically synthesized ONOO- acutely and significantly increased phosphorylation of c-Src, PDK1, AMPK, and its downstream target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), without affecting cellular AMP [1].
  • We show that, in different mammalian species, unrelated genome segments of different origins have been recruited to express as functionally homologous PI the ancient and otherwise highly conserved ACC-alpha-encoding gene [2].
  • Preparations of acetyl-CoA carboxylase [acetyl-CoA-carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming), EC] have been obtained from the plastids of avocado (Persea americana) fruit mesocarp and from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) chloroplasts [3].
  • Glucose and DL-lactate infusion increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity about 12-fold compared to preinfusion activity of 5.3 +/- 4.2 nmoles/minute/g of wet weight [4].
  • This implies that, in principle, none of these promoters can be singled out as the key element controlling the ACC-alpha-related contribution to establishment of milk fat content, although the activity of PIII only is known to be disproportionally stimulated by lactation in MECs [5].

Biological context of ACACA

  • Exposure of BAEC to hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) caused a biphasic increase in AMPK and ACC phosphorylation, which was prevented by adenoviral overexpression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) or inhibition of nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) implicating a role of ONOO- formed during H/R [1].
  • In liver, the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase was already significantly lower in the experimental group before parturition [6].
  • On d 5 of infusion, mammary gland biopsies were performed and a portion of the tissue analyzed for mRNA expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthetase, delta 9-desaturase, lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein, glycerol phosphate acyltransferase and acylglycerol phosphate acyltransferase [7].

Anatomical context of ACACA


Associations of ACACA with chemical compounds

  • Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase alpha (ACACA), the major regulatory enzyme of fatty acid biosynthesis, catalyzes the conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA [13].
  • Large-scale syntheses of metal-containing oligonucleotides are achieved using 5' modified phosporamidites containing [Ru(acac)(2)(IMPy)](2+) (acac is acetylacetonato; IMPy is 2'-iminomethylpyridyl-2'-deoxyuridine) (3) and [Ru(bpy)(2)(IMPy)](2+) (bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine; IMPy is 2'-iminomethylpyridyl-2'-deoxyuridine) (4) [14].
  • Perfusion with medium containing AICAR was found to activate AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle, inactivate acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and decrease malonyl-CoA at all concentrations of palmitate [15].
  • A decline in malonyl-CoA with 0.12 and 0.5 mM caffeine without an increase in cAMP supports the hypothesis that a calcium-dependent mechanisms of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and malonyl-CoA regulation exists, but a cAMP-dependent mechanism may also be involved with 3 mM caffeine [8].
  • Methylmalonyl-CoA at 50 microM concentration inhibited the partially purified acetyl-CoA carboxylase uncompetitively by 10% and the propionyl-CoA carboxylase activity of the enzyme preparation competitively (apparent Ki = 21 microM) by 40% [16].

Other interactions of ACACA


  1. Activation of 5'-AMP-activated kinase is mediated through c-Src and phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity during hypoxia-reoxygenation of bovine aortic endothelial cells. Role of peroxynitrite. Zou, M.H., Hou, X.Y., Shi, C.M., Kirkpatick, S., Liu, F., Goldman, M.H., Cohen, R.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Genomic distribution of three promoters of the bovine gene encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha and evidence that the nutritionally regulated promoter I contains a repressive element different from that in rat. Mao, J., Marcos, S., Davis, S.K., Burzlaff, J., Seyfert, H.M. Biochem. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase from avocado (Persea americana) plastids and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) chloroplasts. Mohan, S.B., Kekwick, R.G. Biochem. J. (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of intravenous infusions of glucose, lactate, propionate or acetate on the induction of lipogenesis in bovine adipose tissue. Prior, R.L., Scott, R.A. J. Nutr. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. All three promoters of the acetyl-coenzyme A-carboxylase alpha-encoding gene are expressed in mammary epithelial cells of ruminants. Molenaar, A., Mao, J., Oden, K., Seyfert, H.M. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Unrestricted feed intake during the dry period impairs the postpartum oxidation and synthesis of fatty acids in the liver of dairy cows. Murondoti, A., Jorritsma, R., Beynen, A.C., Wensing, T., Geelen, M.J. J. Dairy Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreases lipogenic rates and expression of genes involved in milk lipid synthesis in dairy cows. Baumgard, L.H., Matitashvili, E., Corl, B.A., Dwyer, D.A., Bauman, D.E. J. Dairy Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Caffeine decreases malonyl-CoA in isolated perfused skeletal muscle of rats. Maclean, P.S., Winder, W.W. J. Appl. Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Milk fatty acid composition and mammary lipid metabolism in Holstein cows fed protected or unprotected canola seeds. Delbecchi, L., Ahnadi, C.E., Kennelly, J.J., Lacasse, P. J. Dairy Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of feeding or abomasal infusion of canola oil in Holstein cows. 2. Gene expression and plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin and leptin. Chelikani, P.K., Glimm, D.R., Keisler, D.H., Kennelly, J.J. J. Dairy Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of dietary copper on the expression of lipogenic genes and metabolic hormones in steers. Lee, S.H., Engle, T.E., Hossner, K.L. J. Anim. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of prolonged treatment of lactating goats with bovine somatotropin on aspects of adipose tissue and liver metabolism. Vernon, R.G., Faulkner, A., Finley, E., Watt, P.W., Zammit, V.A. J. Dairy Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Goat acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase alpha: molecular characterization, polymorphism, and association with milk traits. Badaoui, B., Serradilla, J.M., Tomàs, A., Urrutia, B., Ares, J.L., Carrizosa, J., Sànchez, A., Jordana, J., Amills, M. J. Dairy Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. 5' modification of duplex DNA with a ruthenium electron donor-acceptor pair using solid-phase DNA synthesis. Frank, N.L., Meade, T.J. Inorganic chemistry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Influence of malonyl-CoA and palmitate concentration on rate of palmitate oxidation in rat muscle. Merrill, G.F., Kurth, E.J., Rasmussen, B.B., Winder, W.W. J. Appl. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Inhibition in vitro of lipogenic enzymes from bovine (Bos taurus) mammary tissue by methylmalonyl-coenzyme A and coenzyme A. Wahle, K.W., Williamson, I.P., Smith, A., Elliot, J.M. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Lactation failure in crossbred Sahiwal Friesian cattle. Murugaiyah, M., Ramakrishnan, P., Omar, A.R., Knight, C.H., Wilde, C.J. J. Dairy Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
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