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Gene Review

ACACA  -  acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ACAC, ACACAD, ACC, ACC-alpha, ACC1, ...
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Disease relevance of ACACA

  • Acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha is essential to breast cancer cell survival [1].
  • RNA interference-mediated silencing of the acetyl-CoA-carboxylase-alpha gene induces growth inhibition and apoptosis of prostate cancer cells [2].
  • These observations support the concept that inhibition of ACC is an important component in stimulating fatty acid oxidation in response to exercise and that there is coordinated regulation of nNOSmu to protect the muscle from ischemia/metabolic stress [3].
  • Of note, substitution of HFD with regular diet causes a robust recovery of soleus AMPK and ACC phosphorylation in LepTg, with a higher rate of body weight reduction and a regain of insulin sensitivity [4].
  • Based on mouse genetic and preclinical pharmacologic evidence, inhibition of ACC1 and/or ACC2 may be a useful approach to treat obesity and metabolic syndrome [5].

Psychiatry related information on ACACA

  • Relative to non-traumatized subjects, PTSD subjects showed a marked bilateral reduction in MPFC activity (in particular, right anterior cingulate cortex, ACC), which showed a different Early-Late pattern to non-traumatized subjects and was more pronounced with greater trauma impact and symptomatology [6].
  • The results obtained in this study suggest that electrophysiological activity in the ACC could be related to particular psychological functions in wakefulness and in REM sleep [7].
  • We found that the ACC showed regular and continuous theta oscillation (5-7Hz) during wakefulness and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, but not during slow wave sleep [7].
  • CONCLUSION : In a great number of patients being referred to cath lab with ACC/AHA class II indication for CXA, CMR provides a high accuracy for decision making regarding appropriateness of the invasive exam [8].

High impact information on ACACA


Chemical compound and disease context of ACACA


Biological context of ACACA


Anatomical context of ACACA


Associations of ACACA with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of ACACA


Enzymatic interactions of ACACA

  • We then delineated the biochemical characteristics of the complex and found that BRCA1 interacts solely with the phosphorylated and inactive form of ACCA (P-ACCA) [29].
  • AMPK phosphorylates and inhibits acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC) and enhances GLUT-4 translocation [3].

Regulatory relationships of ACACA


Other interactions of ACACA


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ACACA


  1. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha is essential to breast cancer cell survival. Chajès, V., Cambot, M., Moreau, K., Lenoir, G.M., Joulin, V. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. RNA interference-mediated silencing of the acetyl-CoA-carboxylase-alpha gene induces growth inhibition and apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Brusselmans, K., De Schrijver, E., Verhoeven, G., Swinnen, J.V. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. AMPK signaling in contracting human skeletal muscle: acetyl-CoA carboxylase and NO synthase phosphorylation. Chen, Z.P., McConell, G.K., Michell, B.J., Snow, R.J., Canny, B.J., Kemp, B.E. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation parallels metabolic phenotype in leptin transgenic mice under dietary modification. Tanaka, T., Hidaka, S., Masuzaki, H., Yasue, S., Minokoshi, Y., Ebihara, K., Chusho, H., Ogawa, Y., Toyoda, T., Sato, K., Miyanaga, F., Fujimoto, M., Tomita, T., Kusakabe, T., Kobayashi, N., Tanioka, H., Hayashi, T., Hosoda, K., Yoshimatsu, H., Sakata, T., Nakao, K. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Modulation of Fatty Acid metabolism as a potential approach to the treatment of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Kusunoki, J., Kanatani, A., Moller, D.E. Endocrine (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Trauma modulates amygdala and medial prefrontal responses to consciously attended fear. Williams, L.M., Kemp, A.H., Felmingham, K., Barton, M., Olivieri, G., Peduto, A., Gordon, E., Bryant, R.A. Neuroimage (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Theta oscillation in the human anterior cingulate cortex during all-night sleep: an electrocorticographic study. Nishida, M., Hirai, N., Miwakeichi, F., Maehara, T., Kawai, K., Shimizu, H., Uchida, S. Neurosci. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Clinical implication of adenosine-stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging as potential gatekeeper prior to invasive examination in patients with AHA/ACC class II indication for coronary angiography. Pilz, G., Bernhardt, P., Klos, M., Ali, E., Wild, M., H??fling, B. Clinical research in cardiology : official journal of the German Cardiac Society. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in exercise and insulin resistance. Kiens, B. Physiol. Rev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Leptin stimulates fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Minokoshi, Y., Kim, Y.B., Peroni, O.D., Fryer, L.G., Müller, C., Carling, D., Kahn, B.B. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Ethylene: a gaseous signal molecule in plants. Bleecker, A.B., Kende, H. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Food for thought: endocannabinoid modulation of lipogenesis. Lichtman, A.H., Cravatt, B.F. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. A point mutation in transthyretin increases affinity for thyroxine and produces euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia. Moses, A.C., Rosen, H.N., Moller, D.E., Tsuzaki, S., Haddow, J.E., Lawlor, J., Liepnieks, J.J., Nichols, W.C., Benson, M.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. AMPK integrates nutrient and hormonal signals to regulate food intake and energy balance through effects in the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues. Xue, B., Kahn, B.B. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Sex differences in major bleeding with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors: results from the CRUSADE (Can Rapid risk stratification of Unstable angina patients Suppress ADverse outcomes with Early implementation of the ACC/AHA guidelines) initiative. Alexander, K.P., Chen, A.Y., Newby, L.K., Schwartz, J.B., Redberg, R.F., Hochman, J.S., Roe, M.T., Gibler, W.B., Ohman, E.M., Peterson, E.D. Circulation (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Insulin stimulates the dephosphorylation and activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Witters, L.A., Watts, T.D., Daniels, D.L., Evans, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Acetyl CoA carboxylase in cultured fibroblasts: differential biotin dependence in the two types of biotin-responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency. Packman, S., Caswell, N., Gonzalez-Rios, M.C., Kadlecek, T., Cann, H., Rassin, D., McKay, C. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Role of radiation therapy in the combined-modality treatment of patients with extensive disease small-cell lung cancer: A randomized study. Jeremic, B., Shibamoto, Y., Nikolic, N., Milicic, B., Milisavljevic, S., Dagovic, A., Aleksandrovic, J., Radosavljevic-Asic, G. J. Clin. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Mapping of FASN and ACACA on two chicken microchromosomes disrupts the human 17q syntenic group well conserved in mammals. Pitel, F., Fillon, V., Heimel, C., Le Fur, N., el Khadir-Mounier, C., Douaire, M., Gellin, J., Vignal, A. Mamm. Genome (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Cloning of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase-beta and its unique features. Ha, J., Lee, J.K., Kim, K.S., Witters, L.A., Kim, K.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Long-term treatment with interleukin-1beta induces insulin resistance in murine and human adipocytes. Lagathu, C., Yvan-Charvet, L., Bastard, J.P., Maachi, M., Quignard-Boulangé, A., Capeau, J., Caron, M. Diabetologia (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. The subcellular localization of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2. Abu-Elheiga, L., Brinkley, W.R., Zhong, L., Chirala, S.S., Woldegiorgis, G., Wakil, S.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. The regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase--a potential target for the action of hypolipidemic agents. Munday, M.R., Hemingway, C.J. Adv. Enzyme Regul. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Growth of Toxoplasma gondii is inhibited by aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides targeting acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Zuther, E., Johnson, J.J., Haselkorn, R., McLeod, R., Gornicki, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Mechanism of apoptosis induced by the inhibition of fatty acid synthase in breast cancer cells. Bandyopadhyay, S., Zhan, R., Wang, Y., Pai, S.K., Hirota, S., Hosobe, S., Takano, Y., Saito, K., Furuta, E., Iiizumi, M., Mohinta, S., Watabe, M., Chalfant, C., Watabe, K. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. BRCA1 interacts with acetyl-CoA carboxylase through its tandem of BRCT domains. Magnard, C., Bachelier, R., Vincent, A., Jaquinod, M., Kieffer, S., Lenoir, G.M., Venezia, N.D. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Metformin-induced stimulation of adenosine 5' monophosphate-activated protein kinase (PRKA) impairs progesterone secretion in rat granulosa cells. Tosca, L., Solnais, P., Ferré, P., Foufelle, F., Dupont, J. Biol. Reprod. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 gene: presence of three promoters and heterogeneity at the 5'-untranslated mRNA region. Mao, J., Chirala, S.S., Wakil, S.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. BRCA1 affects lipid synthesis through its interaction with acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Moreau, K., Dizin, E., Ray, H., Luquain, C., Lefai, E., Foufelle, F., Billaud, M., Lenoir, G.M., Venezia, N.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. A homogeneous scintillation proximity assay for acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase coupled to fatty acid synthase. Seethala, R., Ma, Z., Golla, R., Cheng, D. Anal. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Extracellular adenosine activates AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). Aymerich, I., Foufelle, F., Ferré, P., Casado, F.J., Pastor-Anglada, M. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Malonyl-CoA and AMP-activated protein kinase: an expanding partnership. Saha, A.K., Ruderman, N.B. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 interacts with the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor to enhance acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha transcription in hepatocytes. Yin, L., Zhang, Y., Hillgartner, F.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Effect of exercise intensity on skeletal muscle AMPK signaling in humans. Chen, Z.P., Stephens, T.J., Murthy, S., Canny, B.J., Hargreaves, M., Witters, L.A., Kemp, B.E., McConell, G.K. Diabetes (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by a glutamate- and magnesium-sensitive protein phosphatase in the islet beta-cell. Kowluru, A., Chen, H.Q., Modrick, L.M., Stefanelli, C. Diabetes (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits lipoprotein lipase but increases the activity of lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue from hamsters fed an atherogenic diet. Zabala, A., Churruca, I., Fernández-Quintela, A., Rodríguez, V.M., Macarulla, M.T., Martínez, J.A., Portillo, M.P. Br. J. Nutr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. Fatty acid synthase inhibition in human breast cancer cells leads to malonyl-CoA-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation and cytotoxicity. Thupari, J.N., Pinn, M.L., Kuhajda, F.P. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Human acetyl-CoA carboxylase: characterization, molecular cloning, and evidence for two isoforms. Abu-Elheiga, L., Jayakumar, A., Baldini, A., Chirala, S.S., Wakil, S.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  39. Cloning of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase cDNA. Ha, J., Daniel, S., Kong, I.S., Park, C.K., Tae, H.J., Kim, K.H. Eur. J. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  40. Localization of the gene for acetyl-CoA carboxylase to human chromosome 17. Milatovich, A., Plattner, R., Heerema, N.A., Palmer, C.G., Lopez-Casillas, F., Kim, K.H. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
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