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Gene Review

NPW  -  neuropeptide W

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: L8, L8C, Neuropeptide W, PPL8, PPNPW, ...
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Disease relevance of NPW

  • Only when a higher dose was administered (3 nmol/100 g body weight) did NPW transiently lower blood insulin levels whereas NPB injection did not alter insulinaemia in the studied rats [1].
  • The FBF in the HPW group during reactive hyperemia was significantly lower than that in the NPW group [2].

Psychiatry related information on NPW


High impact information on NPW

  • Synthetic human NPW binds and activates human GPR7 or GPR8 with EC(50) values of 0.56 nM and 0.51 nM, respectively [4].
  • The expression of NPW mRNA in mouse brain is confined to specific nuclei in midbrain and brainstem [4].
  • This peptide, termed neuropeptide W (NPW), also has an N-terminal tryptophan residue [4].
  • NPW elicited only a rise in cAMP production from dispersed ZF/R cells, and its cortisol response was suppressed by both SQ-22536 and H-89 [5].
  • Continuous i.c.v. infusion of NPW using an osmotic minipump suppressed feeding and body weight gain over the infusion period [3].

Chemical compound and disease context of NPW


Biological context of NPW

  • Both NPB and NPW affect food intake and energy expenditure [1].
  • Thus, the results suggest that NPW but not NPB exerts a potent suppressive effect on blood leptin concentrations in the rat, and this mechanism may be involved in NPW regulation of energy homeostasis [1].
  • Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of NPW increased body temperature and heat production [3].
  • As NPB and NPW have 91% sequence homology from residues Val(13) to Leu(23), with only residue 21 differing between the two peptides, the similar C-terminal secondary structures of these two peptides are consistent with the sequences [7].
  • Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of NPW is known to suppress spontaneous-feeding at dark-phase and fasting-induced food intake and to decrease body weight and plasma growth hormone and to increase prolactin and corticosterone; however, little is known about its effect on other physiological functions [8].

Anatomical context of NPW

  • NPB and NPW immunoreactivities were observed in all of the cells of the pancreatic islets [1].
  • Taken together, our findings indicate that NPB and NPW affect rat adrenocortical function, so they may be included in that large family of peptides involved in the autocrine-paracrine stimulation of secretion and growth of adrenal cortex [9].
  • NPB did not acutely (60-min exposure) alter basal aldosterone secretion from freshly dispersed zona glomerulosa cells, while NPW raised it [9].
  • The prolonged (4-day) exposure to NPW, but not NPB, raised corticosterone secretion from cultured ZF/R cells, and both neuropeptides increased the proliferation rate of cultured cells [9].
  • We conclude that endogenous NPW may play a regulatory role in the organization of neuroendocrine signals accessing the anterior pituitary gland but does not itself act as a true releasing or inhibiting factor in the gland [10].

Associations of NPW with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of NPW


Other interactions of NPW

  • This immunostaining was completely abolished by preincubation of the antibodies with NPB but not with NPW [13].
  • The ability of exogenous peptide to decrease GH but stimulate PRL secretion and activate the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis, together with the observed behavioral effects, suggests that endogenous NPW may play a role in the hypothalamic response to stress [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NPW


  1. Neuropeptide W exerts a potent suppressive effect on blood leptin and insulin concentrations in the rat. Rucinski, M., Nowak, K.W., Chmielewska, J., Ziolkowska, A., Malendowicz, L.K. Int. J. Mol. Med. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of estrogen replacement therapy on endothelial function in peripheral resistance arteries in normotensive and hypertensive postmenopausal women. Higashi, Y., Sanada, M., Sasaki, S., Nakagawa, K., Goto, C., Matsuura, H., Ohama, K., Chayama, K., Oshima, T. Hypertension (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. A role for neuropeptide W in the regulation of feeding behavior. Mondal, M.S., Yamaguchi, H., Date, Y., Shimbara, T., Toshinai, K., Shimomura, Y., Mori, M., Nakazato, M. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of a family of endogenous neuropeptide ligands for the G protein-coupled receptors GPR7 and GPR8. Tanaka, H., Yoshida, T., Miyamoto, N., Motoike, T., Kurosu, H., Shibata, K., Yamanaka, A., Williams, S.C., Richardson, J.A., Tsujino, N., Garry, M.G., Lerner, M.R., King, D.S., O'Dowd, B.F., Sakurai, T., Yanagisawa, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. G protein receptors 7 and 8 are expressed in human adrenocortical cells, and their endogenous ligands neuropeptides B and w enhance cortisol secretion by activating adenylate cyclase- and phospholipase C-dependent signaling cascades. Mazzocchi, G., Rebuffat, P., Ziolkowska, A., Rossi, G.P., Malendowicz, L.K., Nussdorfer, G.G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Neuropeptide W is present in antral G cells of rat, mouse, and human stomach. Mondal, M.S., Yamaguchi, H., Date, Y., Toshinai, K., Kawagoe, T., Tsuruta, T., Kageyama, H., Kawamura, Y., Shioda, S., Shimomura, Y., Mori, M., Nakazato, M. J. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. NMR conformational analyses on (des-bromo) neuropeptide B [1-23] and neuropeptide W [1-23]: the importance of alpha-helices, a cation-pi interaction and a beta-turn. Lucyk, S., Miskolzie, M., Kotovych, G. J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Cardiovascular actions of central neuropeptide W in conscious rats. Yu, N., Chu, C., Kunitake, T., Kato, K., Nakazato, M., Kannan, H. Regul. Pept. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of neuropeptides B and W on the secretion and growth of rat adrenocortical cells. Hochol, A., Albertin, G., Nussdorfer, G.G., Spinazzi, R., Ziolkowska, A., Rucinski, M., Malendowicz, L.K. Int. J. Mol. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Neuropeptide W acts in brain to control prolactin, corticosterone, and growth hormone release. Baker, J.R., Cardinal, K., Bober, C., Taylor, M.M., Samson, W.K. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of neuropeptides B and W and their receptors in endocrine glands of the rat. Hochol, A., Belloni, A.S., Rucinski, M., Ziolkowska, A., Di Liddo, R., Nussdorfer, G.G., Malendowicz, L.K. Int. J. Mol. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Neuropeptides B and W enhance the growth of human adrenocortical carcinoma-derived NCI-H295 cells by exerting MAPK p42/p44-mediated proliferogenic and antiapoptotic effects. Andreis, P.G., Rucinski, M., Neri, G., Conconi, M.T., Petrelli, L., Parnigotto, P.P., Malendowicz, L.K., Nussdorfer, G.G. Int. J. Mol. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Immunofluorescent identification of neuropeptide B-containing nerve fibers and terminals in the rat hypothalamus. Schulz, S., Stumm, R., H??llt, V. Neurosci. Lett. (2007) [Pubmed]
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