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Gene Review

NPB  -  neuropeptide B

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: L7, Neuropeptide B, PPL7, PPNPB, Preproprotein L7, ...
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Disease relevance of NPB

  • Only when a higher dose was administered (3 nmol/100 g body weight) did NPW transiently lower blood insulin levels whereas NPB injection did not alter insulinaemia in the studied rats [1].
  • Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of NPB in mice induces hyperphagia during the first 2 h, followed by hypophagia [2].
  • Mouse knockout models of the gene encoding either NPB or NPBW(1) have a gender-specific phenotype, with moderate obesity evident in males but not females [3].
  • This study describes a diagnostic pitfall in the laboratory diagnosis of patients with sphingomyelinase deficiency (SMD; Niemann-Pick disease types A and B; NPA and NPB), in cases where sphingomyelinase activity was not determined with sphingomyelin as the natural enzymic substrate [4].
  • This feeding- and exercise-induced stimulation of NPB is what, albeit slowly, results in muscle hypertrophy [5].

High impact information on NPB


Chemical compound and disease context of NPB


Biological context of NPB

  • Both NPB and NPW affect food intake and energy expenditure [1].
  • Thus, the results suggest that NPW but not NPB exerts a potent suppressive effect on blood leptin concentrations in the rat, and this mechanism may be involved in NPW regulation of energy homeostasis [1].
  • As NPB and NPW have 91% sequence homology from residues Val(13) to Leu(23), with only residue 21 differing between the two peptides, the similar C-terminal secondary structures of these two peptides are consistent with the sequences [8].
  • The comprehensive cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was used to measure micronuclei (MNi; a marker for chromosome breakage and loss), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB; a marker of chromosome rearrangement) and nuclear buds (NBUD, a marker of gene amplification) [9].
  • Mean (SD) values for oxygen uptake and heart rate during NPB for the men and women were: 19.2 (4.4) and 15.7 (3.3) ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), and 110 (10) and 122 (12) beats x min(-1), respectively, whereas the values in PB were: 48.4 (5.7) and 40.2 (4.2) ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), and 165 (12) and 172 (13) beats x min(-1), respectively [10].

Anatomical context of NPB

  • Together, NPB and its receptor GPR7 exist in close proximity in the rat hypothalamus and are, hence, ideally positioned to modulate neuroendocrine functions [11].
  • NPB and NPW immunoreactivities were observed in all of the cells of the pancreatic islets [1].
  • Taken together, our findings indicate that NPB and NPW affect rat adrenocortical function, so they may be included in that large family of peptides involved in the autocrine-paracrine stimulation of secretion and growth of adrenal cortex [12].
  • NPB did not acutely (60-min exposure) alter basal aldosterone secretion from freshly dispersed zona glomerulosa cells, while NPW raised it [12].
  • The prolonged (4-day) exposure to NPW, but not NPB, raised corticosterone secretion from cultured ZF/R cells, and both neuropeptides increased the proliferation rate of cultured cells [12].

Associations of NPB with chemical compounds


Other interactions of NPB

  • On the contrary, NPB injections had no effect on blood leptin and insulin concentrations [1].
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction detected the expression of NPB, NPW, GPR7-R and GPR8-like-R mRNAs in rat adrenocortical cells (both freshly-dispersed and 4-day-cultured cells) [12].
  • On the contrary, when we incubated the cytokine with the albumin solution prior to the desolvation process for preparing nanoparticles (IFN-NPB), we obtained better encapsulation efficiencies (around 100%), but the cytokine was inactive: it was not detected by ELISA or bioassay in Hela cells and unable to stimulate NO production by macrophages [17].
  • To achieve this objective, two different formulations were prepared by either 1) incubation between the cytokine and the newly prepared nanoparticles (IFN-NPA) or 2) between the protein and IFN-gamma prior coacervation (IFN-NPB) [17].
  • A metabolic study performed with human purified 125I-alpha 2-AP (PB/NPB 7.7/2.3) showed a plasma radioactivity disappearance half-life of 72.9 h (n 60.1 +/- 5.3 h) with a normal fractional catabolic rate and a reduced absolute catabolic (synthetic) rate of 0.70 mg/kg/day (n 2.10 +/- 0.60 mg/kg/day) [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NPB

  • Immunocytochemistry demonstrated the presence of NPB and NPW immunoreactivities in these same glands [14].
  • The ratio of plasminogen binding (PB):non-plasminogen binding (NPB) alpha 2-AP assayed by modified crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) was 7.3/2.7 (controls 6.3 +/- 0.49 SD/3.7 +/- 0.49 SD) [18].
  • Intergroup comparison showed that the mean percentage of cells labeled with anti-p27K and anti-p29K was significantly higher in PB than in NPB, as seen by flow cytometry, whereas there was a higher production or accumulation of the p21K (PLP) prosomal protein in NPM than in PM, as seen by immunostaining [19].
  • However, NPB was lower (-14%) in the trained gymnasts than in the control group ( P <0.05), which might be explained by a greater protein ingestion in the control group on the day of the protocol ( P <0.05) [20].


  1. Neuropeptide W exerts a potent suppressive effect on blood leptin and insulin concentrations in the rat. Rucinski, M., Nowak, K.W., Chmielewska, J., Ziolkowska, A., Malendowicz, L.K. Int. J. Mol. Med. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization of a family of endogenous neuropeptide ligands for the G protein-coupled receptors GPR7 and GPR8. Tanaka, H., Yoshida, T., Miyamoto, N., Motoike, T., Kurosu, H., Shibata, K., Yamanaka, A., Williams, S.C., Richardson, J.A., Tsujino, N., Garry, M.G., Lerner, M.R., King, D.S., O'Dowd, B.F., Sakurai, T., Yanagisawa, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Neuropeptide B and W: neurotransmitters in an emerging G-protein-coupled receptor system. Singh, G., Davenport, A.P. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Niemann-Pick disease type A and B are clinically but also enzymatically heterogeneous: pitfall in the laboratory diagnosis of sphingomyelinase deficiency associated with the mutation Q292 K. Harzer, K., Rolfs, A., Bauer, P., Zschiesche, M., Mengel, E., Backes, J., Kustermann-Kuhn, B., Bruchelt, G., van Diggelen, O.P., Mayrhofer, H., Krägeloh-Mann, I. Neuropediatrics. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Dietary protein to support anabolism with resistance exercise in young men. Phillips, S.M., Hartman, J.W., Wilkinson, S.B. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. G protein receptors 7 and 8 are expressed in human adrenocortical cells, and their endogenous ligands neuropeptides B and w enhance cortisol secretion by activating adenylate cyclase- and phospholipase C-dependent signaling cascades. Mazzocchi, G., Rebuffat, P., Ziolkowska, A., Rossi, G.P., Malendowicz, L.K., Nussdorfer, G.G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Lung involvement in Niemann-Pick disease type C1: improvement with bronchoalveolar lavage. Palmeri, S., Tarugi, P., Sicurelli, F., Buccoliero, R., Malandrini, A., De Santi, M.M., Marcianò, G., Battisti, C., Dotti, M.T., Calandra, S., Federico, A. Neurol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. NMR conformational analyses on (des-bromo) neuropeptide B [1-23] and neuropeptide W [1-23]: the importance of alpha-helices, a cation-pi interaction and a beta-turn. Lucyk, S., Miskolzie, M., Kotovych, G. J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism, folic acid and riboflavin are important determinants of genome stability in cultured human lymphocytes. Kimura, M., Umegaki, K., Higuchi, M., Thomas, P., Fenech, M. J. Nutr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. The physiological demands of sail pumping in Olympic level windsurfers. Vogiatzis, I., De Vito, G., Rodio, A., Madaffari, A., Marchetti, M. European journal of applied physiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Immunofluorescent identification of neuropeptide B-containing nerve fibers and terminals in the rat hypothalamus. Schulz, S., Stumm, R., H??llt, V. Neurosci. Lett. (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of neuropeptides B and W on the secretion and growth of rat adrenocortical cells. Hochol, A., Albertin, G., Nussdorfer, G.G., Spinazzi, R., Ziolkowska, A., Rucinski, M., Malendowicz, L.K. Int. J. Mol. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Neuropeptide B immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the rat. Dun, S.L., Brailoiu, G.C., Mizuo, K., Yang, J., Chang, J.K., Dun, N.J. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of neuropeptides B and W and their receptors in endocrine glands of the rat. Hochol, A., Belloni, A.S., Rucinski, M., Ziolkowska, A., Di Liddo, R., Nussdorfer, G.G., Malendowicz, L.K. Int. J. Mol. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Neuropeptides B and W enhance the growth of human adrenocortical carcinoma-derived NCI-H295 cells by exerting MAPK p42/p44-mediated proliferogenic and antiapoptotic effects. Andreis, P.G., Rucinski, M., Neri, G., Conconi, M.T., Petrelli, L., Parnigotto, P.P., Malendowicz, L.K., Nussdorfer, G.G. Int. J. Mol. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of inspiratory-phase negative pressure breathing on urine flow in man. Hebden, R.A., Freund, B.J., Claybaugh, J.R., Ichimura, W.M., Hashiro, G.M. Undersea biomedical research. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Potential of albumin nanoparticles as carriers for interferon gamma. Segura, S., Espuelas, S., Renedo, M.J., Irache, J.M. Drug development and industrial pharmacy. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Alpha 2-antiplasmin: functional characterization and metabolism in a heterozygote deficient patient. Knot, E.A., ten Cate, J.W., Lamping, R.J., Gie, L.K. Thromb. Haemost. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Increased prosomal proteins in breast cancer cells and in neighboring normal cells in Parsi and non-Parsi populations. Bhui-Kaur, A., Therwath, A., Henry, L., Chiesa, J., Kurkure, A., Scherrer, K., Bureau, J.P. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Training does not affect protein turnover in pre- and early pubertal female gymnasts. Boisseau, N., Persaud, C., Jackson, A.A., Poortmans, J.R. European journal of applied physiology. (2005) [Pubmed]
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