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Gene Review

Cyss  -  cystatin S

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Cst4, Cystatin-1, Cystatin-S, Protein LM
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Disease relevance of Cyss


High impact information on Cyss


Chemical compound and disease context of Cyss

  • Agar diffusion analysis demonstrated that rat cystatin S, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, inhibited the growth of all tested strains of a human oral, Gram-negative anaerobic periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis [1].

Biological context of Cyss


Anatomical context of Cyss


Associations of Cyss with chemical compounds

  • Capsaicin induces cystatin S-like substances in submandibular saliva of the rat [9].
  • The gene encoding rat cystatin S (Cys S), a salivary gland-specific secretory protein, has CAAT and TATA boxes upstream of the inititation codon (Cox and Shaw, 1992), and contains regions that resemble those of other hormonally responsive eukaryotic genes [11].
  • The purpose of this study was to assess whether rat cystatin S, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, is present in rat sebaceous glands, and to measure the effects of methotrexate on the expression of cystatin in these glands [12].
  • Administration of one of the pituitary-dependent hormones testosterone, estradiol, dexamethasone and thyroxine, together with isoproterenol resulted in marked enhancement of the isoproterenol-induced cystatin S mRNA expression in hypophysectomized rats, whereas administration of any of these hormones alone had no significant effect [13].

Other interactions of Cyss


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cyss


  1. Growth inhibition of a human oral bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis by rat cysteine proteinase inhibitor cystatin S. Umemoto, T., Naito, Y., Li, M., Suzuki, I., Namikawa, I. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of a functional rat salivary cystatin S polypeptide in Escherichia coli. Sharma, A., O'Connell, B.C., Tabak, L.A., Bedi, G.S. Arch. Oral Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Induction of synthesis of the rat cystatin S protein by the submandibular gland during the acute phase of experimental Chagas disease. Alves, J.B., Alves, M.S., Naito, Y. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding a rat salivary cysteine proteinase inhibitor inducible by beta-adrenergic agonists. Shaw, P.A., Cox, J.L., Barka, T., Naito, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression and induction by beta-adrenergic agonists of the cystatin S gene in submandibular glands of developing rats. Shaw, P.A., Barka, T., Woodin, A., Schacter, B.S., Cox, J.L. Biochem. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Structure, organization and regulation of a rat cysteine proteinase inhibitor-encoding gene. Cox, J.L., Shaw, P.A. Gene (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Beta-adrenergic induction of a cysteine-proteinase-inhibitor mRNA in rat salivary glands. Shaw, P.A., Barka, T. Biochem. J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Abnormally high levels of cystatin S in submandibular glands, saliva, and gingiva of plaque-resistant rats. Abe, K., Okina, A., Yano, T., Gao, C., Ohmori, H., Ishibashi, K., Nishiura, T., Letić-Gavrilović, A. J. Dent. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Capsaicin induces cystatin S-like substances in submandibular saliva of the rat. Katsukawa, H., Ninomiya, Y. J. Dent. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Isoproterenol-induced expression of the cystatin S gene in submandibular glands of parasympathectomized rats. Chaparro, O., Yu, W.H., Shaw, P.A. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. The 5'-flanking sequence and regulatory elements of the cystatin S gene. Shaw, P.A., Chaparro, O. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. The effect of methotrexate on the expression of a cysteine protease inhibitor (type 2 cystatin) in rat sebaceous glands. Cohen, R.E., Chien, H.H., Neiders, M.E., Comeau, R.L. J. Dermatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Impaired induction of cystatin S gene expression by isoproterenol in the submandibular gland of hypophysectomized rats. Iseki, S., Kim, J.G., Kudo, Y., Naito, Y., Hipkaeo, W. Arch. Oral Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Expressions of the genes for cysteine proteinase inhibitors cystatin C and cystatin S in rat submandibular salivary gland. Barka, T., van der Noen, H. Arch. Oral Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of sympathectomy on isoproterenol-induced expression of the cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene, cystatin S, in rat submandibular glands. Chaparro, O., Yu, W.H., Shaw, P.A. Arch. Oral Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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