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Chemical Compound Review

Etaminal     5-ethyl-5-pentan-2-yl-1,3- diazinane-2,4,6...

Synonyms: Nembutal, Ethaminal, Mebumal, Sagatal, Mebubarbital, ...
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Disease relevance of Ethaminal

  • By comparison, pretreatments with either the PB-type or MCA-type PCB's (50-200 mumol/kg) diminished mitoinhibitory toxicity of 2-FAA in vivo, as measured by hepatic regenerative growth and hepatocyte labeling indices 7 days after partial hepatectomy (PH) in rats given 3 consecutive daily doses of 2-FAA (20/mg/kg/day) before PH [1].
  • The time course of ventricular arrhythmias in the early period (0--30 minutes) after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery was studied in 41 open-chest mongrel dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal) [2].
  • Female C57BL/6 mice received a hindfoot amputation under anesthesia with Nembutal i.p. Twenty-four hr later, amputated and control groups were sacrificed, spleens were harvested, and cytotoxicity assays were performed using 51Cr-labeled Yac-1 lymphoma target cells [3].
  • Concentrations for 50% inhibition in chromatophores of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides (at 0.4 microM reaction center) are 2 microM for undecyl-, 3 microM for octyl-, and 40 microM for pentyl-substituted hydroxynaphthoquinones [4].
  • In 3 cats in which similar procedures were compared under pentobarbitone anaesthesia, there were smaller and less consistent changes in responses to BP changes alone and to hypoxia and its associated BP changes [5].

Psychiatry related information on Ethaminal


High impact information on Ethaminal

  • Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with Nembutal and were intravenously injected with 1 mg/kg of F(ab')2 or Fab fraction of either monoclonal antibody 5I2, which inhibits the function of rat counterpart of mouse Crry/p65, or monoclonal antibody 6D1, which inhibits the rat counterpart of CD59 [10].
  • Cytocidal toxicity of 2-FAA (25-400 microM), determined by lactate dehydrogenase release during 20 hours in primary monolayer cultures of isolated rat hepatocytes, was reduced by in vivo pretreatment with either phenobarbitone [(PB) CAS: 50-06-6] or 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP), a PB-type PCB inducer [1].
  • Under nembutal anesthesia, the placenta of 60-65-d-old pregnant guinea pigs was surgically exposed, a single umbilical artery and the umbilical vein were cannulated, and the fetus was removed [11].
  • Rats were anesthetized with Nembutal, the pancreas was exposed, and a 2- to 3-mm incision was made in the "head" of the pancreas approximately 1 cm from the duodenum [12].
  • Pentobarbitone greatly enhances GABA-evoked currents, whereas the neurosteroid 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one demonstrates a large reduction in both the potency and maximal effect when compared with its actions upon vertebrate GABA type A receptors [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ethaminal


Biological context of Ethaminal

  • METHODS: Male rats were anaesthetised with sodium pentobarbitone, and mean arterial blood pressure monitored during repeated colorectal balloon inflation before and after treatment with alosetron or saline [19].
  • In pentobarbitone-anesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats, intravenous rilmenidine (0.1 to 1 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced blood pressure and heart rate [20].
  • The affinity of diacridines for both alpha-adrenoceptor classes has a parabolic dependence on alkyl chain length with the hexyl and pentyl derivatives being the most potent at the alpha 1- (Ki = 11.5 +/- 2.3 nM) and alpha 2- (Ki = 143 +/- 26 nM) binding sites, respectively [21].
  • Thus, intracarotid perfusion of nembutal increased the synaptosomal phosphorylation state both in normoxic and in hypoxic animals, whereas the effect on the metabolism of the contralateral cortical motor area as a whole was in all cases less than that observed in the synaptosomal fraction [22].
  • The 4-POBN adducts detected by ESR are very similar to, if not identical with, ethyl and pentyl radical adducts, providing evidence of in vivo lipid peroxidation resulting from asbestos exposure [23].

Anatomical context of Ethaminal


Associations of Ethaminal with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Ethaminal


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ethaminal


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  12. Experimental induction of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in rats. Dissin, J., Mills, L.R., Mains, D.L., Black, O., Webster, P.D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. Cloning and functional expression of a Drosophila gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor. Chen, R., Belelli, D., Lambert, J.J., Peters, J.A., Reyes, A., Lan, N.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
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  17. Cardiovascular responses evoked from the nicotine-sensitive area on the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata in the cat. Guertzenstein, P.G., Lopes, O.U. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1984) [Pubmed]
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  20. Recent advances in the pharmacology of rilmenidine. Montastruc, J.L., Macquin-Mavier, I., Tran, M.A., Damase-Michel, C., Koenig-Berard, E., Valet, P. Am. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Interaction of DNA-intercalating antitumor agents with adrenoceptors. Adams, A., Jarrott, B., Elmes, B.C., Denny, W.A., Wakelin, L.P. Mol. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Drug action on the metabolic changes induced by acute hypoxia on synaptosomes from the cerebral cortex. Benzi, G., Arrigoni, E., Pastoris, O., Villa, R.F., Dossena, M., Agnoli, A., Giuffrida, A.M. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. In vivo evidence of free radical formation after asbestos instillation: an ESR spin trapping investigation. Ghio, A.J., Kadiiska, M.B., Xiang, Q.H., Mason, R.P. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
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