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Gene Review

Cyt-c-p  -  Cytochrome c proximal

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG17903, CYTC2, Cyt C, Cyt c, Cyt-c2, ...
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Disease relevance of Cyt-c-p

  • As the biological action linked to heat stress, 14-3-3zeta interacted with apocytochrome c, a mitochondrial precursor protein of cytochrome c, in heat-treated cells, and the suppression of 14-3-3zeta expression by RNA interference resulted in the formation of significant amounts of aggregated apocytochrome c in the cytosol [1].
  • Now we have found that the stability properties of the equivalent mutant of Rhodobacter capsulatus cytochrome c2 (P35A) are somewhat different [2].

High impact information on Cyt-c-p


Chemical compound and disease context of Cyt-c-p


Biological context of Cyt-c-p

  • The Drosophila genome contains distinct cyt c genes: cyt c-p and cyt c-d. Loss of cyt c-p function causes embryonic lethality owing to a requirement of the gene for mitochondrial respiration [5].
  • These two sequences, DC3 and DC4, have been isolated from a Charon 4A-D. melanogaster genomic library [6].
  • DC3 and DC4 are located within a 4 kb region of DNA, at position 36A 10-11, on the left arm of chromosome 2 [6].
  • The sequence of fruit fly cytochrome c differed from that reported previously but was identical with that predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the fruit fly cytochrome c gene (DC4) (Limbach, K.J. & Wu, R. (1985) Nucl. Acids Res. 13, 631-644) [7].
  • Furthermore, the ratio of cytochrome c to the other cytochromes remains the same at all times, indicating that these components of the respiratory chain follow coordinated developmental programs [8].

Anatomical context of Cyt-c-p

  • By using polysome immunoadsorption, a poly(A)+ RNA population of greater than or equal to 95% cytochrome c mRNA was isolated from thoracic muscle tissue and was used to construct a cDNA library, which was screened by hybrid selection/translation [8].
  • The cytochrome c oxidase enzyme (COX) is comprised of 10 nuclear-encoded subunits and three mitochondrial-encoded subunits in close physical association in the inner mitochondrial membrane [9].
  • The cytochrome P-450 content and the benzo[a]pyrene (BP) hydroxylation, p-nitroanisole demethylation and 3- and 4-hydroxylation of biphenyl were 4-20-fold higher in microsomes from adult flies, while 7-ethoxycoumarin deethylase activity and cytochrome c reductase activity were about the same in the two stages [10].

Associations of Cyt-c-p with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Cyt-c-p

  • It harbors the genes for four mitochondrial tRNAs, for cytochrome c oxidase subunits II and III and for ATPase subunits 6 and 8 [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cyt-c-p


  1. A Novel Function of 14-3-3 Protein: 14-3-3{zeta} Is a Heat-Shock-related Molecular Chaperone That Dissolves Thermal-aggregated Proteins. Yano, M., Nakamuta, S., Wu, X., Okumura, Y., Kido, H. Mol. Biol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. The substitution of proline 35 by alanine in Rhodobacter capsulatus cytochrome c2 affects the overall protein stability but not the alkaline transition. Caffrey, M.S., Gooley, P.R., Zhao, D., Meyer, T.E., Cusanovich, M.A., MacKenzie, N.E. Protein Eng. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. The two cytochrome c species, DC3 and DC4, are not required for caspase activation and apoptosis in Drosophila cells. Dorstyn, L., Mills, K., Lazebnik, Y., Kumar, S. J. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. The role of cytochrome c in caspase activation in Drosophila melanogaster cells. Dorstyn, L., Read, S., Cakouros, D., Huh, J.R., Hay, B.A., Kumar, S. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Cytochrome c-d regulates developmental apoptosis in the Drosophila retina. Mendes, C.S., Arama, E., Brown, S., Scherr, H., Srivastava, M., Bergmann, A., Steller, H., Mollereau, B. EMBO Rep. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization of two Drosophila melanogaster cytochrome c genes and their transcripts. Limbach, K.J., Wu, R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Developmental variation and amino acid sequences of cytochromes c of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the flesh fly Boettcherisca peregrina. Inoue, S., Inoue, H., Hiroyoshi, T., Matsubara, H., Yamanaka, T. J. Biochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Developmental expression of nuclear genes that encode mitochondrial proteins: insect cytochromes c. Swanson, M.S., Zieminn, S.M., Miller, D.D., Garber, E.A., Margoliash, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Cytonuclear coadaptation in Drosophila: disruption of cytochrome c oxidase activity in backcross genotypes. Sackton, T.B., Haney, R.A., Rand, D.M. Evolution (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Comparison of cytochrome P-450-dependent metabolism in different developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster. Hällstöm, I., Blanck, A., Atuma, S. Chem. Biol. Interact. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. alpha-Synuclein, oxidative stress and apoptosis from the perspective of a yeast model of Parkinson's disease. Witt, S.N., Flower, T.R. FEMS Yeast Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Changing the invariant proline-30 of rat and Drosophila melanogaster cytochromes c to alanine or valine destabilizes the heme crevice more than the overall conformation. Koshy, T.I., Luntz, T.L., Schejter, A., Margoliash, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Oxidative stress and aging reduce COX I RNA and cytochrome oxidase activity in Drosophila. Schwarze, S.R., Weindruch, R., Aiken, J.M. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Age-associated decline in mitochondrial respiration and electron transport in Drosophila melanogaster. Ferguson, M., Mockett, R.J., Shen, Y., Orr, W.C., Sohal, R.S. Biochem. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Different mitochondrial gene orders among insects: exchanged tRNA gene positions in the COII/COIII region between an orthopteran and a dipteran species. Haucke, H.R., Gellissen, G. Curr. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Strategies for the study of cytochrome c structure and function by site-directed mutagenesis. Caffrey, M.S. Biochimie (1994) [Pubmed]
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