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Gene Review

HK1  -  hexokinase 1

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of HK1


High impact information on HK1

  • No difference was found in the level of hexokinase activity in homogenates prepared from cells incubated glucose-free medium or standard medium when either 2-deoxy-D-[14C]glucose or D-glucose was used as substrate [4].
  • Over this time period, insulin provoked selective increases (up to 5-fold) in factors relevant to the control of glycolysis: the activities of phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), phosphofructokinase-2 (PFK-2) and hexokinase isoenzymes and the content of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (F26BP) [5].
  • Thymocyte Glut-1, Glut-3, and HK-1 mRNA abundance increased from e17 to d14 (P < 0.05) [6].
  • Bursacyte glucose transporter-3 (Glut-3) mRNA abundance increased from d1 to d14 and hexokinase-1 (HK-1) mRNA abundance was maximum on e20 (P < 0.05) [6].
  • Neither hexokinase nor glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity differed between genotypes (p > 0.05) [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of HK1

  • To elucidate the specificity of glucose metabolism in chicken skeletal muscle, changes in mRNA levels of hexokinase I (HKI), hexokinase II (HKII), phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1) and glycogen synthase (GS) were characterized in acute and persistent hypoglycemia induced by tolbutamide administration [2].

Anatomical context of HK1

  • Heat-inactivation and electrophoretic mobility studies showed that although hexokinase Type I is the major form in both normal and transformed fibroblasts, there is a significant increase in the proportion of the Type II isozyme in the transformed cells [1].
  • Hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase reveal only slight activity changes during muscle cell development under the conditions studied [8].

Associations of HK1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of HK1


  1. Transport and phosphorylation of hexoses in normal and Rous sarcoma virus-transformed chick embryo fibroblasts. Singh, M., Singh, V.N., August, J.T., Horecker, B.L. J. Cell. Physiol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. Changes in muscle mRNAs for hexokinase, phosphofructokinase-1 and glycogen synthase in acute and persistent hypoglycemia induced by tolbutamide in chickens. Seki, Y., Sato, K., Akiba, Y. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. The increase in hexokinase activity in hereditary avian muscular dystrophy. Woodward, J., Park, J.H., Colowick, S.P. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Induction of sugar transport in chick embryo fibroblasts by hexose starvation. Evidence for transcriptional regulation of transport. Kletzien, R.F., Perdue, J.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. Control of glycolysis in cultured chick embryo hepatocytes. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate content and phosphofructokinase-1 activity are stimulated by insulin and epidermal growth factor. Hamer, M.J., Dickson, A.J. Biochem. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Energy Metabolism in Developing Chicken Lymphocytes Is Altered during the Embryonic to Posthatch Transition. Rudrappa, S.G., Humphrey, B.D. J. Nutr. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Reduced glucose transport in sperm from roosters (Gallus domesticus) with heritable subfertility. McLean, D.J., Jones, L.G., Froman, D.P. Biol. Reprod. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Calcium-related changes of enzyme activities in energy metabolism of cultured embryonic chick myoblasts and myotubes. Schudt, C., Gaertner, U., Dölken, G., Pette, D. Eur. J. Biochem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of glucokinase activity in the domestic fowl. Klandorf, H., Clarke, B.L., Scheck, A.C., Brown, J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Evidence for and characterization of a mannitol cycle in Eimeria tenella. Schmatz, D.M., Baginsky, W.F., Turner, M.J. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Activity of certain liver enzymes in fast- and slow-growing lines of chickens. Proudman, J.A., Mellen, W.J., Hultin, H.O. Poult. Sci. (1975) [Pubmed]
  12. Demonstration of a heterogeneous distribution of glycolytic enzymes and of pyruvate kinase isoenzymes types M1 and M2 in unfertilized hen eggs. Noda, S., Schoner, W. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. The action of hydrocortisone, insulin, and glucagon on chicken liver hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase and on the plasma glucose and free fatty acid concentrations. O'Neill, I.E., Langslow, D.R. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1978) [Pubmed]
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