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Gene Review

alphaTub84D  -  alpha-Tubulin at 84D

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 3t, ALPHA 84D, CG2512, D.m.ALPHA-84D, DTA4, ...
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Disease relevance of alphaTub84D

  • Soluble alpha 3 beta1 integrin also bound to invasin, a bacterial surface protein, that mediates entry of Yersinia species into the eukaryotic host cell [1].

Psychiatry related information on alphaTub84D

  • The polarity of kinesin's motor activity can be reversed by MT disassembly and interactions between a motor and a MT end can either slow or speed the rate of tubulin depolymerization [2].

High impact information on alphaTub84D

  • Regulation of tubulin gene expression during embryogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster [3].
  • Both the polymerization and depolymerization of tubulin have been shown to do work in vitro, but the biochemical complexity of objects moved, such as chromosomes, has complicated the identification of proteins that couple MT dynamics with motility [2].
  • Despite high levels of expression of these exogenous MAPs and the bundling of microtubules in cells expressing tau, transfected cells had normal levels of assembled and unassembled tubulin [4].
  • Identification of a Drosophila G protein alpha subunit (dGq alpha-3) expressed in chemosensory cells and central neurons [5].
  • Transcripts encoding dGq alpha-3 are derived from alternative splicing of the dGq alpha locus previously shown to encode two visual-system-specific transcripts [Lee, Y.-J., Dobbs, M.B., Verardi, M.L. & Hyde, D.R. (1990) Neuron 5, 889-898] [5].

Biological context of alphaTub84D

  • During mitosis the spindle microtubules stained strongly for tubulin [6].
  • Tubulin proportion varied during development, the highest proportion being found at embryogenesis where two alpha- and beta- (one of them transitory) tubulin subunits were found [7].
  • These results suggest that it is not the absolute level of wrl gene product but its level relative to tubulin or microtubule function that is important for normal spermatogenesis [8].
  • These data are consistent with a variety of roles for dGq alpha-3, including mediating a subset of olfactory and gustatory responses in Drosophila, and supports the idea that some chemosensory responses use G protein-coupled receptors and the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [5].
  • Since these three regions are distal to the catalytic site, the likely mechanism for Gsalpha activation is to modulate the structure of the active site by controlling the orientation of the C2 alpha2 and alpha3/beta4 structures [9].

Anatomical context of alphaTub84D

  • Since tubulin polymerization is slow inside eggs of the kavar(0)/- females, only short microtubules can form within the 4 to 5 minutes allowed for the process [10].
  • Although alpha4-tubulin comprises only about one-fifth of the alpha-tubulin pool in every Drosophila egg, in the absence of alpha4-tubulin - in eggs of the kavar(0)/- hemizygous females - only a tassel of short microtubules forms with two barely separated daughter centrosomes [10].
  • Immunolocalization studies using dGq alpha-3 isoform-specific antibodies and LacZ fusion genes show that dGq alpha-3 is expressed in chemosensory cells of the olfactory and taste structures, including a subset of olfactory and gustatory neurons, and in cells of the central nervous system, including neurons in the lamina ganglionaris [5].
  • In this study, we performed an analysis of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 3 subunit gene promoter region, -238/+47, to identify cis and trans elements that are important for basal activity in PC12 cells [11].
  • Three of the genes, alpha3, alpha5, and beta4, are tightly clustered, and their encoded proteins make up the predominant receptor subtype in the peripheral nervous system [12].

Associations of alphaTub84D with chemical compounds

  • This is the first demonstration that imidacloprid selectively acts on Mp alpha2 and Mp alpha3 subunits, but not Mp alpha1, in M. persicae [13].
  • Invasin completely displaced laminin-5 from the alpha 3 beta 1 integrin, suggesting sterically overlapping or identical binding sites [1].
  • Within the alpha 3 light chain, all potential N-glycosylation sites bear N-linked mannose-rich carbohydrate chains, suggesting an important structural role of these sugar residues in the stalk-like region of the integrin heterodimer [1].
  • Heparin-column chromatography and elastase-digestion of medium from hemocyte Kc167 gave Drosophila laminin alpha3/5betagamma trimer, alpha3/5LG2-3 and alpha3/5LG4-5 modules with eluting NaCl concentrations of 450, 280 and 450 mM, respectively [14].

Regulatory relationships of alphaTub84D

  • Nondesensitizing ACh-evoked inward currents were observed when D alpha3 was coexpressed with the chick beta2 subunit [15].

Other interactions of alphaTub84D

  • Two of the genes, alpha 1 and alpha 3, are constitutively expressed and code for proteins that are very similar to previously sequenced alpha-tubulins [16].
  • However, unlike D. melanogaster, in all montium species studied, both alpha 1- and alpha 3-tubulin specific probes hybridize to the same polytene band, indicating a clustered organization of the above genes [17].
  • 5. The snake venom component alpha-bungarotoxin (100 nM) efficiently but reversibly blocked D alpha3/beta2 receptors, suggesting that D alpha3 may be a component of one of the previously described two classes of toxin binding sites in the Drosophila CNS [15].
  • Integrin-alpha3 and Chd are co-expressed in the Xenopus embryo [18].


  1. Recombinant soluble human alpha 3 beta 1 integrin: purification, processing, regulation, and specific binding to laminin-5 and invasin in a mutually exclusive manner. Eble, J.A., Wucherpfennig, K.W., Gauthier, L., Dersch, P., Krukonis, E., Isberg, R.R., Hemler, M.E. Biochemistry (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Minus-end-directed motion of kinesin-coated microspheres driven by microtubule depolymerization. Lombillo, V.A., Stewart, R.J., McIntosh, J.R. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation of tubulin gene expression during embryogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Raff, E.C., Fuller, M.T., Kaufman, T.C., Kemphues, K.J., Rudolph, J.E., Raff, R.A. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Stable expression of heterologous microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) in Chinese hamster ovary cells: evidence for differing roles of MAPs in microtubule organization. Barlow, S., Gonzalez-Garay, M.L., West, R.R., Olmsted, J.B., Cabral, F. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of a Drosophila G protein alpha subunit (dGq alpha-3) expressed in chemosensory cells and central neurons. Talluri, S., Bhatt, A., Smith, D.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Microtubule arrays present during the syncytial and cellular blastoderm stages of the early Drosophila embryo. Warn, R.M., Warn, A. Exp. Cell Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Quantitative determination of tubulin and characterization of tubulin forms during development in Drosophila melanogaster. Wandosell, F., Avila, J. Cell Differ. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Two types of genetic interaction implicate the whirligig gene of Drosophila melanogaster in microtubule organization in the flagellar axoneme. Green, L.L., Wolf, N., McDonald, K.L., Fuller, M.T. Genetics (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Three discrete regions of mammalian adenylyl cyclase form a site for Gsalpha activation. Yan, S.Z., Huang, Z.H., Rao, V.D., Hurley, J.H., Tang, W.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. alpha4-Tubulin is involved in rapid formation of long microtubules to push apart the daughter centrosomes during earlyx Drosophila embryogenesis. Venkei, Z., Gáspár, I., Tóth, G., Szabad, J. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Transcriptional analysis of acetylcholine receptor alpha 3 gene promoter motifs that bind Sp1 and AP2. Yang, X., Fyodorov, D., Deneris, E.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Sp1 and Sp3 regulate expression of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta4 subunit gene. Bigger, C.B., Melnikova, I.N., Gardner, P.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular characterization and imidacloprid selectivity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits from the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae. Huang, Y., Williamson, M.S., Devonshire, A.L., Windass, J.D., Lansdell, S.J., Millar, N.S. J. Neurochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Syndecan-dependent binding of Drosophila hemocytes to laminin alpha3/5 chain LG4-5 modules: potential role in sessile hemocyte islets formation. Narita, R., Yamashita, H., Goto, A., Imai, H., Ichihara, S., Mori, H., Kitagawa, Y. FEBS Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. D alpha3, a new functional alpha subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from Drosophila. Schulz, R., Sawruk, E., Mülhardt, C., Bertrand, S., Baumann, A., Phannavong, B., Betz, H., Bertrand, D., Gundelfinger, E.D., Schmitt, B. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Tissue-specific and constitutive alpha-tubulin genes of Drosophila melanogaster code for structurally distinct proteins. Theurkauf, W.E., Baum, H., Bo, J., Wensink, P.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. The organization of the alpha-tubulin gene family in the Drosophila montium subgroup of the melanogaster species group. Drosopoulou, E., Scouras, Z.G. Genome (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Integrin-alpha3 mediates binding of Chordin to the cell surface and promotes its endocytosis. Larraín, J., Brown, C., De Robertis, E.M. EMBO Rep. (2003) [Pubmed]
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