The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

nAChRalpha2  -  nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor alpha2

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: Acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-like 2, Acr96Ab, AcrE, CG6844, CG6844-PA, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

High impact information on nAcRalpha-96Ab

  • Comparison of the yeast alpha 2 and the Drosophila engrailed homeodomain-DNA complexes shows that the protein fold is highly conserved, despite a 3-residue insertion in alpha 2 and only 27% sequence identity between the two homeodomains [1].
  • We have determined the 2.7 A resolution crystal structure of the alpha 2 homeodomain bound to a biologically relevant DNA sequence [1].
  • This region of alpha 2 has significant homology with the homeo domain, a conserved sequence found in the products of several Drosophila homeotic and segmentation genes [2].
  • The Drosophila tyramine receptor that we have isolated might therefore be an invertebrate equivalent of the mammalian alpha 2 adrenergic receptors [3].
  • Membranes from mammalian cells expressing this receptor displayed high affinity binding sites for [3H]yohimbine, an alpha 2 adrenergic receptor antagonist (Kd = 4.45 x 10(-9) M) [3].

Biological context of nAcRalpha-96Ab

  • Five different D alpha 2-lacZ fusion gene constructs were introduced into the Drosophila genome by P-element-mediated gene transfer to identity functional elements of the D alpha 2 promoter [4].
  • Between 1.7 and 7.3 kb upstream of the transcription start site one or more elements that are required for D alpha 2 expression in optic lobe tangential cells are located [4].
  • Cytogenetically, the D alpha 2 gene maps at position 96A of the 3rd chromosome, close to the ALS gene which also encodes an alpha-like nAChR subunit [5].
  • On considering both neonicotinoids and nicotinoids, the Dalpha2/Rbeta2 and Mpalpha2/Rbeta2 receptors display intermediate pharmacological profiles between those of native insect and vertebrate alpha4beta2 receptors, limiting the use of these hybrid receptors for predictive toxicology [6].
  • Identity between the nucleotide sequences of alpha 1 and alpha 2 was 83.4%; between their predicted amino acid sequences it was 88.9% [7].

Anatomical context of nAcRalpha-96Ab


Associations of nAcRalpha-96Ab with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of nAcRalpha-96Ab

  • A chimera based on the chicken alpha4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit containing an insert from loop B to the N-terminus of the Drosophila melanogaster Dalpha2 (=SAD) subunit was constructed and co-expressed with the chicken beta2 nAChR subunit in Xenopus laevis oocytes [14].

Other interactions of nAcRalpha-96Ab

  • Sequencing of the alpha 3EpA transcript indicated sequence and structural homology to laminin alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains that extend from domain IIIa through the carboxyl-terminal G domain [15].
  • Two of the five chimeric subunits, Cfalpha1/Dalpha2 and Cfalpha3/Dalpha2, when co-expressed with rat beta2 in Drosophila S2 cells, showed high-affinity binding of both epibatidine (Kd=1.6+/-0.6 and 0.13+/-0.06nM, respectively), and imidacloprid (Ki=142+/-34 and 28.7+/-2.4nM, respectively) [16].
  • Replacement of the region loop B to the N-terminus of the alpha4 subunit by the corresponding region of the Dalpha2 subunit had little effect on the concentration-response curve for imidacloprid [14].
  • The temporal and spatial expression pattern of the Drosophila melanogaster alpha 2-tubulin gene (alpha 2) has been investigated by examining the expression of an alpha 2-lacZ fusion gene [17].
  • v-Jun downregulates the alpha 2 (I) collagen target gene indirectly through Sp1/3 [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of nAcRalpha-96Ab


  1. Crystal structure of a MAT alpha 2 homeodomain-operator complex suggests a general model for homeodomain-DNA interactions. Wolberger, C., Vershon, A.K., Liu, B., Johnson, A.D., Pabo, C.O. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Homeo domain of the yeast repressor alpha 2 is a sequence-specific DNA-binding domain but is not sufficient for repression. Hall, M.N., Johnson, A.D. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Cloning and characterization of a Drosophila tyramine receptor. Saudou, F., Amlaiky, N., Plassat, J.L., Borrelli, E., Hen, R. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of the ligand-binding nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit D alpha 2 in the Drosophila central nervous system. Jonas, P.E., Phannavong, B., Schuster, R., Schröder, C., Gundelfinger, E.D. J. Neurobiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Structure and developmental expression of the D alpha 2 gene encoding a novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protein of Drosophila melanogaster. Jonas, P., Baumann, A., Merz, B., Gundelfinger, E.D. FEBS Lett. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Pharmacological profiles of recombinant and native insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Tomizawa, M., Millar, N.S., Casida, J.E. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Molecular characterization of four members of the alpha-tubulin gene family of the Bermuda land crab Gecarcinus lateralis. Varadaraj, K., Kumari, S.S., Skinner, D.M. J. Exp. Zool. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from Drosophila: two different types of alpha subunits coassemble within the same receptor complex. Schulz, R., Bertrand, S., Chamaon, K., Smalla, K.H., Gundelfinger, E.D., Bertrand, D. J. Neurochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. viking: identification and characterization of a second type IV collagen in Drosophila. Yasothornsrikul, S., Davis, W.J., Cramer, G., Kimbrell, D.A., Dearolf, C.R. Gene (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. v-Jun downregulates the alpha 2 (I) collagen target gene indirectly through Sp1/3. Chamboredon, S., Castellazzi, M. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular characterization and imidacloprid selectivity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits from the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae. Huang, Y., Williamson, M.S., Devonshire, A.L., Windass, J.D., Lansdell, S.J., Millar, N.S. J. Neurochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Physiological properties of neuronal nicotinic receptors reconstituted from the vertebrate beta 2 subunit and Drosophila alpha subunits. Bertrand, D., Ballivet, M., Gomez, M., Bertrand, S., Phannavong, B., Gundelfinger, E.D. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Subunit compositions and catalytic properties of proteasomes from developmental temperature- sensitive mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Covi, J.A., Belote, J.M., Mykles, D.L. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Insect-vertebrate chimeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors identify a region, loop B to the N-terminus of the Drosophila Dalpha2 subunit, which contributes to neonicotinoid sensitivity. Shimomura, M., Satoh, H., Yokota, M., Ihara, M., Matsuda, K., Sattelle, D.B. Neurosci. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Cloning of the LamA3 gene encoding the alpha 3 chain of the adhesive ligand epiligrin. Expression in wound repair. Ryan, M.C., Tizard, R., VanDevanter, D.R., Carter, W.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Molecular characterisation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits from the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Bass, C., Lansdell, S.J., Millar, N.S., Schroeder, I., Turberg, A., Field, L.M., Williamson, M.S. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. The promoter region of the Drosophila alpha 2-tubulin gene directs testicular and neural specific expression. Bo, J., Wensink, P.C. Development (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Renaturation of casein kinase II from recombinant subunits produced in Escherichia coli: purification and characterization of the reconstituted holoenzyme. Lin, W.J., Traugh, J.A. Protein Expr. Purif. (1993) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities