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Gene Review

TLR1LA  -  toll-like receptor 1-like A

Gallus gallus

Synonyms: TLR1, TLR16
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Disease relevance of TLR1


Psychiatry related information on TLR1

  • The results demonstrate the differential involvement of TLR-induced signals in the stimulation of transduction pathways that regulate the oxygen-dependent and -independent antimicrobial defense mechanisms of avian heterophils [3].

High impact information on TLR1

  • The complete sequences of Takifugu Toll-like receptor (TLR) loci and gene predictions from many draft genomes enable comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis [4].
  • Vulture TLR1 and TIR domain showed 64% and 86% amino acid sequence similarity with chicken sequences [5].
  • Stimulation of heterophils with each specific TLR agonist led to a differential increase in the phosphorylation of both p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) activation, but not the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) [3].
  • The bacterial TLR agonists (PAM, PGN, LPS, and FGN) all induced an up-regulation of expression of mRNA of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8; whereas both poly(I:C) and LOX induced a down-regulation of these cytokine mRNAs [3].
  • Analyses of the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site and nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site indicate that the nucleotide sequences coding for the leucine-rich repeats of chicken TLR1 type 1 and type 2 were significantly under positive Darwinian selection [6].

Biological context of TLR1

  • Toll-like receptor agonists stimulate differential functional activation and cytokine and chemokine gene expression in heterophils isolated from chickens with differential innate responses [7].
  • This study was conducted to begin to map the molecular pathways that regulate TLR-mediated oxidative burst [8].
  • One well characterized method of mammalian macrophage activation involves the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway [2].
  • The TLR repertoire of mouse and man has been intensively studied and in this manuscript we report the identification of ESTs with homology to chTLR5 and chTLR7, and independently confirm the identification of chTLR 1/6/10 and 3 in the EST databases [9].

Anatomical context of TLR1

  • The presence of TLRs on chicken monocytes and the differential induction of NO production in chicken monocytes by various TLR agonists suggest the differentiation of signaling pathways downstream of individual TLRs [10].
  • Expression patterns of chicken Toll-like receptor mRNA in tissues, immune cell subsets and cell lines [9].
  • An understanding of the TLR repertoire for different tissues, immune cell subsets and cultured cell types allows more refined interpretation of immune induction in response to chicken pathogens [9].

Associations of TLR1 with chemical compounds

  • All the bacterial TLR agonists, peptidoglycan, the synthetic lipoprotein Pam3CSK4, ultra-pure lipopolysaccharide, and flagellin all induced significantly greater functional activation of heterophils from line A compared to B [7].

Regulatory relationships of TLR1

  • We used RT-PCR analysis to examine the TLR expression profile on chicken monocytes and demonstrated these cells express chicken TLR2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TLR1


  1. Induction of a novel chicken Toll-like receptor following Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Higgs, R., Cormican, P., Cahalane, S., Allan, B., Lloyd, A.T., Meade, K., James, T., Lynn, D.J., Babiuk, L.A., O'farrelly, C. Infect. Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Gene expression profiling of avian macrophage activation. Bliss, T.W., Dohms, J.E., Emara, M.G., Keeler, C.L. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression and function of Toll-like receptors in chicken heterophils. Kogut, M.H., Iqbal, M., He, H., Philbin, V., Kaiser, P., Smith, A. Dev. Comp. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. The evolution of vertebrate Toll-like receptors. Roach, J.C., Glusman, G., Rowen, L., Kaur, A., Purcell, M.K., Smith, K.D., Hood, L.E., Aderem, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular cloning and characterisation of the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) toll-like receptor 1. de la Lastra, J.M., de la Fuente, J. Dev. Comp. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification and sequence analysis of chicken Toll-like receptors. Yilmaz, A., Shen, S., Adelson, D.L., Xavier, S., Zhu, J.J. Immunogenetics (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Toll-like receptor agonists stimulate differential functional activation and cytokine and chemokine gene expression in heterophils isolated from chickens with differential innate responses. Kogut, M.H., Swaggerty, C., He, H., Pevzner, I., Kaiser, P. Microbes Infect. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Differential activation of signal transduction pathways mediating oxidative burst by chicken heterophils in response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid. Farnell, M.B., He, H., Kogut, M.H. Inflammation (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression patterns of chicken Toll-like receptor mRNA in tissues, immune cell subsets and cell lines. Iqbal, M., Philbin, V.J., Smith, A.L. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Profile of Toll-like receptor expressions and induction of nitric oxide synthesis by Toll-like receptor agonists in chicken monocytes. He, H., Genovese, K.J., Nisbet, D.J., Kogut, M.H. Mol. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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