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Gene Review

APOV1  -  apovitellenin 1

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of APOVLDLII


Psychiatry related information on APOVLDLII

  • 4. In contrast to mammals where early over feeding predisposes to adult obesity, lipoprotein profiles and ad lib feeding patterns of chicks are not readily altered by dietary measures [6].

High impact information on APOVLDLII

  • Biosynthesis of lipoprotein: location of nascent apoAI and apoB in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of chicken hepatocytes [7].
  • They may later enter the luminal side of the ER and, on entering the Golgi, form lipoprotein particles [7].
  • Using in vivo dimethylsulphate footprinting, we have analysed protein--DNA interactions within the promoter region of the oestrogen-inducible gene encoding chicken apo very low density lipoprotein II (apoVLDL II) [8].
  • Synthesis and secretion of fatty acid, cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) occur at in vivo rates and respond to hormones and agents which affect these processes in vivo [9].
  • In addition to these biochemical and immunological lines of evidence for the identity of the vitellogenin receptor with the very low density lipoprotein receptor, genetic proof was obtained [2].

Chemical compound and disease context of APOVLDLII


Biological context of APOVLDLII


Anatomical context of APOVLDLII


Associations of APOVLDLII with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of APOVLDLII


Enzymatic interactions of APOVLDLII


Regulatory relationships of APOVLDLII

  • Anti-lipoprotein lipase sera injected intravenously in roosters blocked quantitatively the catabolism of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride [29].
  • During the last week of incubation, which is the final third of the incubation period, the digestion seemed to progress rapidly in the yolk drops, which came to resemble lipolysosomes; lipoprotein production became active as expressed by an enlarged Golgi apparatus [30].

Other interactions of APOVLDLII

  • All the bacterial TLR agonists, peptidoglycan, the synthetic lipoprotein Pam3CSK4, ultra-pure lipopolysaccharide, and flagellin all induced significantly greater functional activation of heterophils from line A compared to B [31].
  • Chicken vitellogenin, a serum lipoprotein specific for laying hens, has been thought to be proteolytically cleaved into the heavy and light chain lipovitellins and phosvitin, the major yolk granule proteins, during or after transportation into oocyte [32].
  • This phenotype results from a point mutation in the gene specifying the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), whose protein product normally mediates the massive oocytic uptake of egg yolk precursors from the circulation [33].
  • Chicken lipoprotein lipase differs from mammalian lipoprotein lipases with respect to the position of one N-glycosylation site and the presence of an additional 15-17 C-terminal amino acids [34].
  • Octanoate reduces very low-density lipoprotein secretion by decreasing the synthesis of apolipoprotein B in primary cultures of chicken hepatocytes [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of APOVLDLII


  1. Mutant oocytic low density lipoprotein receptor gene family member causes atherosclerosis and female sterility. Bujo, H., Yamamoto, T., Hayashi, K., Hermann, M., Nimpf, J., Schneider, W.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. A single chicken oocyte plasma membrane protein mediates uptake of very low density lipoprotein and vitellogenin. Stifani, S., Barber, D.L., Nimpf, J., Schneider, W.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Functional expression of the chicken low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein in a mutant chinese hamster ovary cell line restores toxicity of Pseudomonas exotoxin A and degradation of alpha2-macroglobulin. Avramoglu, R.K., Nimpf, J., McLeod, R.S., Ko, K.W., Wang, Y., FitzGerald, D., Yao, Z. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Localization of an immunodominant 64 kDa lipoprotein (LP 64) in the membrane of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and its role in cytadherence. Forsyth, M.H., Tourtellotte, M.E., Geary, S.J. Mol. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Avian homologs of the mammalian low-density lipoprotein receptor family bind minor receptor group human rhinovirus. Gruenberger, M., Wandl, R., Nimpf, J., Hiesberger, T., Schneider, W.J., Kuechler, E., Blaas, D. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Plasma lipoprotein profiles in broiler chicks (Gallus domesticus): effects of early overfeeding. Brown, E.M., Bryson, D.E., Cartwright, A.L., Foglia, T.A. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. A, Comparative physiology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Biosynthesis of lipoprotein: location of nascent apoAI and apoB in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of chicken hepatocytes. Dixon, J.L., Chattapadhyay, R., Huima, T., Redman, C.M., Banerjee, D. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Tissue-specific and steroid-dependent interaction of transcription factors with the oestrogen-inducible apoVLDL II promoter in vivo. Wijnholds, J., Philipsen, J.N., Ab, G. EMBO J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Lipogenesis and the synthesis and secretion of very low density lipoprotein by avian liver cells in nonproliferating monolayer culture. Hormonal effects. Tarlow, D.M., Watkins, P.A., Reed, R.E., Miller, R.S., Zwergel, E.E., Lane, M.D. J. Cell Biol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. Dipyridamole prevents the coconut oil-induced hypercholesterolemia. A study on lipid plasma and lipoprotein composition. García-Fuentes, E., Gil-Villarino, A., Zafra, M.F., García-Peregrín, E. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation on serum very low density lipoprotein diameter and fractionation of cholesterol among lipoproteins in commercial egg-laying hens. Burnham, M.R., Peebles, E.D., Branton, S.L., Walzem, R.L., Gerard, P.D. Poult. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of added dietary lard on body weight and serum glucose and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in randombred broiler chickens. Peebles, F.D., Cheaney, J.D., Brake, J.D., Boyle, C.R., Latour, M.A. Poult. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of oral ethanol on serum lipoprotein cholesterol in juvenile meat-type chickens. Peebles, E.D., Latour, M.A., Broome-Cheaney, S.E., Cheaney, J.D., Zumwalt, C.D. Alcohol (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Prevalence of a novel capsule-associated lipoprotein among pasteurellaceae pathogenic in animals. Champlin, F.R., Shryock, T.R., Patterson, C.E., Austin, F.W., Ryals, P.E. Curr. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. The nucleotide sequence of the chicken apo very low density lipoprotein II gene. van het Schip, A.D., Meijlink, F.C., Strijker, R., Gruber, M., van Vliet, A.J., van de Klundert, J.A., Ab, G. Nucleic Acids Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. The hydrolysis of cholesterol esters in plasma lipoproteins by hormone-sensitive cholesterol esterase from adipose tissue. Khoo, J.C., Drevon, C.A., Steinberg, D. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  17. The receptor for yolk lipoprotein deposition in the chicken oocyte. Barber, D.L., Sanders, E.J., Aebersold, R., Schneider, W.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Chicken oocytes and fibroblasts express different apolipoproteins-B-specific receptors. Hayashi, K., Nimpf, J., Schneider, W.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of cloned DNA coding for an apolipoprotein (apo VLDL-II) from avian blood and the amino acid sequence of an egg-yolk protein (apovitellenin I): equivalence of the two sequences. Dugaiczyk, A., Inglis, A.S., Strike, P.M., Burley, R.W., Beattie, W.G., Chan, L. Gene (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of embryonic antigens in the plasma of developing chick embryos. Weller, E.M. Cancer Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Assembly of very low density lipoprotein in the hepatocyte. Differential transport of apoproteins through the secretory pathway. Bamberger, M.J., Lane, M.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Detection and characterization of degradative intermediates of avian apo very low density lipoprotein II mRNA present in estrogen-treated birds and following destabilization by hormone withdrawal. Cochrane, A., Deeley, R.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Association and assembly of triglyceride and phospholipid with glycosylated and unglycosylated apoproteins of very low density lipoprotein in the intact liver cell. Siuta-Mangano, P., Janero, D.R., Lane, M.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Sequential assembly of very low density lipoprotein apolipoproteins, triacylglycerol, and phosphoglycerides by the intact liver cell. Janero, D.R., Lane, M.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  25. Effect of tunicamycin on the secretion of serum proteins by primary cultures of rat and chick hepatocytes. Studies on transferrin, very low density lipoprotein, and serum albumin. Struck, D.K., Siuta, P.B., Lane, M.D., Lennarz, W.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  26. The size and detergent binding of membrane proteins. Clarke, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. Multiple involvement of clusterin in chicken ovarian follicle development. Binding to two oocyte-specific members of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene family. Mahon, M.G., Lindstedt, K.A., Hermann, M., Nimpf, J., Schneider, W.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Lipoprotein lipase of ovarian follicles in the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) (38537). Benson, J.D., Bensadoun, A., Cohen, D. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of an anti-lipoprotein lipase serum on plasma triglyceride removal. Kompiang, I.P., Bensadoun, A., Yang, M.W. J. Lipid Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. Participation of endodermal epithelial cells on the synthesis of plasma LDL and HDL in the chick yolk sac. Kanai, M., Soji, T., Sugawara, E., Watari, N., Oguchi, H., Matsubara, M., Herbert, D.C. Microsc. Res. Tech. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Toll-like receptor agonists stimulate differential functional activation and cytokine and chemokine gene expression in heterophils isolated from chickens with differential innate responses. Kogut, M.H., Swaggerty, C., He, H., Pevzner, I., Kaiser, P. Microbes Infect. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Precursor-product relationship between chicken vitellogenin and the yolk proteins: the 40 kDa yolk plasma glycoprotein is derived from the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain of vitellogenin II. Yamamura, J., Adachi, T., Aoki, N., Nakajima, H., Nakamura, R., Matsuda, T. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Validation of a modified PCR-based method for identifying mutant restricted ovulator chickens: substantiation of genotypic classification by phenotypic traits. Elkin, R.G., Zhong, Y., Porter, R.E., Walzem, R.L. Poult. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Avian adipose lipoprotein lipase: cDNA sequence and reciprocal regulation of mRNA levels in adipose and heart. Cooper, D.A., Stein, J.C., Strieleman, P.J., Bensadoun, A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1989) [Pubmed]
  35. Octanoate reduces very low-density lipoprotein secretion by decreasing the synthesis of apolipoprotein B in primary cultures of chicken hepatocytes. Tachibana, S., Sato, K., Cho, Y., Chiba, T., Schneider, W.J., Akiba, Y. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Oocytes from the mutant restricted ovulator hen lack receptor for very low density lipoprotein. Nimpf, J., Radosavljevic, M.J., Schneider, W.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  37. Apoproteins of avian very low density lipoprotein: demonstration of a single high molecular weight apoprotein. Williams, D.L. Biochemistry (1979) [Pubmed]
  38. Estrogen induction of very low density apolipoprotein II synthesis, a major avian liver yolk protein, involves the recruitment of hepatocytes. Lin, C.T., Palmer, W., Wu, J.Y., Chan, L. Endocrinology (1986) [Pubmed]
  39. Proteins associated with the messenger ribonucleoprotein particle for the estrogen-regulated apolipoprotein II mRNA. MacDonald, C.C., Williams, D.L. Biochemistry (1992) [Pubmed]
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