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Gene Review

ITSN2  -  intersectin 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Intersectin-2, KIAA1256, PRO2015, SH3 domain-containing protein 1B, SH3D1B, ...
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Disease relevance of ITSN2

  • No relationship between the reduction of SWA and duration of illness was found, while a relationship between SWA decrease and the level of emaciation (body mass index) was present [1].
  • After termination of the torpor-associated hypothermia, there is an initial high electroenecephalogram (EEG) slow-wave activity (SWA; 0.75-4.0 Hz) and a subsequent monotonic decline [2].
  • The mouse counterpart of one of these genes, intersectin 2, was expressed dramatically, as measured by ear edema, in 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene-induced mouse contact dermatitis and in NC/Nga mouse dermatitis [3].
  • Cytokine responses (interferon [IFN]-gamma, interleukin [IL]-2, IL-4 and IL-5) to Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen (SWA), Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate proteins (CFPs) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) were measured in a whole blood assay [4].
  • HIV seropositivity in east Caprivi, SWA/Namibia [5].

Psychiatry related information on ITSN2

  • CONCLUSIONS: Sleep of anorectic patients seems to be characterized by an impairment of SWA-producing mechanisms independent of the increased sleep fragmentation [1].
  • It has been postulated that there is a relation between the rate of improvement in neurobehavioral functioning and rate of decline of slow-wave sleep and/or slow-wave activity (SWS/SWA) during sleep, but this has not been verified [6].
  • MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Anorectics had an increase of wakefulness after sleep onset, a higher number of arousals, and a reduction of SWS and SWA during total sleep time [1].
  • Slow-wave sleep [SWS, i.e. stages 3 + 4 of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and slow wave activity (SWA, mean EEG power density in the range of 0.75-4.5 Hz)] in NREM sleep attained highest values in the first 3 hr of sleep and lowest values in the morning hours when rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was at its maximum [7].
  • It is well established that slow-wave activity [SWA; mean electroencephalographic (EEG) power density in the 0.75-4.0 Hz band] in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is a function of the prior history of sleep and wakefulness [8].

High impact information on ITSN2


Chemical compound and disease context of ITSN2


Biological context of ITSN2

  • Alternative splicing of ITSN2 generates a short isoform with two EH domains, a coiled-coil region and five SH3 domains, and a longer isoform containing extra carboxy domains (DH, PH and C2 domains), suggesting that it could act as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho-like GTPases [12].
  • Human intersectins 1 and 2 (ITSN1 and ITSN2) are conserved proteins involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis [13].
  • Whereas rectal temperature before onset and during the first 4 hours of sleep was higher after BL than after DL, the time course of electroencephalographic (EEG) slow-wave activity (SWA, EEG power density in the range of 0.75-4.5 Hz) in nonrapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) differed only slightly between the conditions [14].
  • The data are not in support of a close relationship between SWA and core body temperature [14].
  • This hypothesis has recently been questioned because the increase in SWA disappears in ground squirrels when sleep deprived immediately following hibernation [15].

Associations of ITSN2 with chemical compounds

  • THIP has been reported to increase EEG slow-wave activity (SWA; EEG power in the 0.75-4 Hz band) in non-REM (NREM) sleep in both rats and humans [16].
  • U.S. Air Force Tactical Air Command (TAC) aircrew who deployed to the Southwest Asia Area of Responsibility (SWA AOR) for Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm were retrospectively surveyed to determine the extent and effectiveness of dextroamphetamine use in support of sustained flying operations [17].
  • In vitro histamine-release induced by S. mansoni egg (SEA) or worm (SWA) Ags or anti-IgE antibody, was significantly reduced 1-day post-treatment [18].
  • As the first part of a prospective epidemiological study of the lung function and dust exposure of workers at the Rössing Uranium Mine in SWA/Namibia, various measurements of lung function of 1,407 workers were carried out [19].
  • Serum vitamin C, vitamin A and carotene values in infants in SWA/Namibia [20].

Co-localisations of ITSN2

  • Intersectin 2 isoforms show a subcellular distribution similar to other components of the endocytic machinery and co-localize with Eps15 [12].

Other interactions of ITSN2

  • Here we report the characterization of a new human gene, ITSN2, highly similar to ITSN1 [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ITSN2

  • A positive correlation (r2 = .58, p < .01) between body mass index and the amount of SWA was found [21].
  • Total sleep time and EEG slow-wave activity (SWA, spectral power within 0.75-4.5 Hz) in nonREM sleep (stages 1-4) were not changed [22].
  • Our aim was to investigate the dynamics of SWA in the EEG of two brain regions (frontal and occipital cortex) after sleep deprivation (SD) in two of the mice strains most often used in gene targeting [8].
  • PURPOSE: To examine the reliability and validity of the SWA during rest and exercise compared with indirect calorimetry (IC) [23].
  • METHODS: EE was assessed with SWA and IC in 13 males during two resting and one cycle ergometry (40 min at 60% VO2peak) sessions [23].


  1. Impairment of the production of delta sleep in anorectic adolescents. Nobili, L., Baglietto, M.G., Beelke, M., De Carli, F., Di Comite, R., Fiocchi, I., Rizzo, P., Veneselli, E., Savoini, M., Zanotto, E., Ferrillo, F. Sleep. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Selective sleep deprivation after daily torpor in the Djungarian hamster. Palchykova, S., Deboer, T., Tobler, I. Journal of sleep research. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Analysis of gene expression in peripheral blood eosinophils from patients with atopic dermatitis by differential display. Hashida, R., Ogawa, K., Miyagawa, M., Sugita, Y., Takahashi, E., Nagasu, T., Katsunuma, T., Akasawa, A., Tsujimoto, G., Matsumoto, K., Saito, H. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Associations between helminth infection and CD4+ T cell count, viral load and cytokine responses in HIV-1-infected Ugandan adults. Elliott, A.M., Mawa, P.A., Joseph, S., Namujju, P.B., Kizza, M., Nakiyingi, J.S., Watera, C., Dunne, D.W., Whitworth, J.A. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. HIV seropositivity in east Caprivi, SWA/Namibia. Lecatsas, G., Joubert, J.J., Schutte, C.H., Taylor, M.B., Swanevelder, C. S. Afr. Med. J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Dose-response relationship between sleep duration and human psychomotor vigilance and subjective alertness. Jewett, M.E., Dijk, D.J., Kronauer, R.E., Dinges, D.F. Sleep. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Sleep extension in humans: sleep stages, EEG power spectra and body temperature. Dijk, D.J., Cajochen, C., Tobler, I., Borbély, A.A. Sleep. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Topography of EEG dynamics after sleep deprivation in mice. Huber, R., Deboer, T., Tobler, I. J. Neurophysiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. The intersectin 2 adaptor links Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp)-mediated actin polymerization to T cell antigen receptor endocytosis. McGavin, M.K., Badour, K., Hardy, L.A., Kubiseski, T.J., Zhang, J., Siminovitch, K.A. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Caffeine reduces low-frequency delta activity in the human sleep EEG. Landolt, H.P., Dijk, D.J., Gaus, S.E., Borbély, A.A. Neuropsychopharmacology (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Probable chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in south-western Africa. Blumenfeld, A.M., Sieling, W.L., Davidson, A., Isaäcson, M. S. Afr. Med. J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Intersectin 2, a new multimodular protein involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Pucharcos, C., Estivill, X., de la Luna, S. FEBS Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression analysis of human intersectin 2 gene (ITSN2) minor splice variants showing differential expression in normal human brain. Seifert, M., Ampofo, C., Mehraein, Y., Reichrath, J., Welter, C. Oncol. Rep. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Dynamics of EEG slow-wave activity and core body temperature in human sleep after exposure to bright light. Cajochen, C., Dijk, D.J., Borbély, A.A. Sleep. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Slow waves in the sleep electroencephalogram after daily torpor are homeostatically regulated. Deboer, T., Tobler, I. Neuroreport (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. The GABAA receptor agonist THIP alters the EEG in waking and sleep of mice. Vyazovskiy, V.V., Kopp, C., Bösch, G., Tobler, I. Neuropharmacology (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. The use of amphetamines in U.S. Air Force tactical operations during Desert Shield and Storm. Emonson, D.L., Vanderbeek, R.D. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Changes in IgE- and antigen-dependent histamine-release in peripheral blood of Schistosoma mansoni-infected Ugandan fishermen after treatment with praziquantel. Satti, M.Z., Cahen, P., Skov, P.S., Joseph, S., Jones, F.M., Fitzsimmons, C., Hoffmann, K.F., Reimert, C., Kariuki, H.C., Kazibwe, F., Mwatha, J.K., Kimani, G., Vennervald, B.J., Ouma, J.H., Kabatereine, N.B., Dunne, D.W. BMC Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Cross-sectional study of uranium mine workers to develop predictive equations for lung functions with reference to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. De Kock, M.A., Swiegers, W.R., Kotze, T.J., Joubert, G. S. Afr. Med. J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Serum vitamin C, vitamin A and carotene values in infants in SWA/Namibia. Heese, H.D. S. Afr. Med. J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. A quantified analysis of sleep electroencephalography in anorectic adolescents. Nobili, L., Baglietto, M.G., De Carli, F., Savoini, M., Schiavi, G., Zanotto, E., Ferrillo, F., De Negri, M. Biol. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of chronic phenelzine treatment on REM sleep: report of three patients. Landolt, H.P., de Boer, L.P. Neuropsychopharmacology (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Validity of a multi-sensor armband in estimating rest and exercise energy expenditure. Fruin, M.L., Rankin, J.W. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (2004) [Pubmed]
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