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Gene Review

Aldh1a3  -  aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A3

Mus musculus

Synonyms: ALDH6, Aldehyde dehydrogenase 6, Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3, Aldh6, RALDH-3, ...
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Disease relevance of Aldh1a3

  • Raldh3 knockout notably causes choanal atresia (CA), which is responsible for respiratory distress and death of Raldh3-null mutants at birth [1].
  • Mycoplasma pulmonis V-1 surface protein variation: occurrence in vivo and association with lung lesions [2].

High impact information on Aldh1a3

  • We demonstrate that Raldh3 knockout in mouse suppresses RA synthesis and causes malformations restricted to ocular and nasal regions, which are similar to those observed in vitamin A-deficient fetuses and/or in retinoid receptor mutants [1].
  • However, reporter transgene activity was selectively detected in Raldh2(-/-) embryos within the mesonephric area that expresses RALDH3 and in medial-ventral cells of the spinal cord and posterior hindbrain, up to the level of the fifth rhombomere [3].
  • Although these patterns correlated with the presence of Raldh1 andor Raldh3 transcripts in eye, nasal, and inner ear epithelia, no such correlation was found within forebrain neuroepithelium [3].
  • These data suggest the existence of additional RA-generating activities in the differentiating forebrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord, which, along with RALDH1 and RALDH3, may account for the development of Raldh2(-/-) mutants once these have been rescued for early lethality [3].
  • RA signaling in the optic cup, detected by using a RARE-lacZ transgene, is not significantly altered in Raldh1(-/-) embryos at embryonic day 10.5, possibly due to normal expression of Aldh1a3 (Raldh3) in dorsal retinal pigment epithelium and ventral neural retina [4].

Biological context of Aldh1a3


Anatomical context of Aldh1a3

  • Raldh-3 was preferentially expressed first in the surface ectoderm overlying the ventral portion of the prospective eye region and then in the ventral retina, earlier than Raldh-1 in chick and mouse embryos [8].
  • Within the optic vesicle, RALDH3 is expressed in the ventral retina and the dorsal pigment epithelium [9].
  • Raldh3 expression is specific to the differentiating intestinal lamina propria [5].
  • In the telencephalon, RALDH3 is expressed at high levels in the lateral part of the ganglionic eminence [9].
  • At later stages, Raldh1 expressed in dorsal neural retina and Raldh3 expressed in ventral neural retina (plus weaker expression of each in lens/corneal ectoderm) generates RA that travels to surrounding mesenchyme, where it is needed to limit the anterior invasion of perioptic mesenchyme during the formation of corneal mesenchyme and eyelids [10].

Associations of Aldh1a3 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Aldh1a3


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Aldh1a3

  • Immunohistochemistry was performed on adult C57BL/6J mouse skin sections with antibodies against Aldh1a2 and Aldh1a3 [11].
  • RALDH3 (retinal dehydrogenase 3) was characterized by kinetic and binding studies, protein engineering, homology modelling, ligand docking and electrostatic-potential calculations [15].
  • Inhibition of RALDH3 by tri-iodothyronine binding in competition with NAD+, predicted by the modelling, was established kinetically and by immunoprecipitation [15].


  1. A newborn lethal defect due to inactivation of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 3 is prevented by maternal retinoic acid treatment. Dupé, V., Matt, N., Garnier, J.M., Chambon, P., Mark, M., Ghyselinck, N.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Mycoplasma pulmonis V-1 surface protein variation: occurrence in vivo and association with lung lesions. Talkington, D.F., Fallon, M.T., Watson, H.L., Thorp, R.K., Cassell, G.H. Microb. Pathog. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2)- independent patterns of retinoic acid synthesis in the mouse embryo. Niederreither, K., Vermot, J., Fraulob, V., Chambon, P., Dolle, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Targeted disruption of Aldh1a1 (Raldh1) provides evidence for a complex mechanism of retinoic acid synthesis in the developing retina. Fan, X., Molotkov, A., Manabe, S., Donmoyer, C.M., Deltour, L., Foglio, M.H., Cuenca, A.E., Blaner, W.S., Lipton, S.A., Duester, G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Differential expression of retinoic acid-synthesizing (RALDH) enzymes during fetal development and organ differentiation in the mouse. Niederreither, K., Fraulob, V., Garnier, J.M., Chambon, P., Dollé, P. Mech. Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Retinoic acid-dependent eye morphogenesis is orchestrated by neural crest cells. Matt, N., Dupé, V., Garnier, J.M., Dennefeld, C., Chambon, P., Mark, M., Ghyselinck, N.B. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Complementary expression patterns of retinoid acid-synthesizing and -metabolizing enzymes in pre-natal mouse inner ear structures. Romand, R., Niederreither, K., Abu-Abed, S., Petkovich, M., Fraulob, V., Hashino, E., Dollé, P. Gene Expr. Patterns (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of RALDH-3, a novel retinaldehyde dehydrogenase, expressed in the ventral region of the retina. Suzuki, R., Shintani, T., Sakuta, H., Kato, A., Ohkawara, T., Osumi, N., Noda, M. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. A retinoic acid synthesizing enzyme in ventral retina and telencephalon of the embryonic mouse. Li, H., Wagner, E., McCaffery, P., Smith, D., Andreadis, A., Dräger, U.C. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Retinoic acid guides eye morphogenetic movements via paracrine signaling but is unnecessary for retinal dorsoventral patterning. Molotkov, A., Molotkova, N., Duester, G. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Hair cycle-specific immunolocalization of retinoic acid synthesizing enzymes Aldh1a2 and Aldh1a3 indicate complex regulation. Everts, H.B., King, L.E., Sundberg, J.P., Ong, D.E. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 6, a cytosolic retinaldehyde dehydrogenase prominently expressed in sensory neuroepithelia during development. Grün, F., Hirose, Y., Kawauchi, S., Ogura, T., Umesono, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. RALDH3, a retinaldehyde dehydrogenase that generates retinoic acid, is expressed in the ventral retina, otic vesicle and olfactory pit during mouse development. Mic, F.A., Molotkov, A., Fan, X., Cuenca, A.E., Duester, G. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Mouse retinal dehydrogenase 4 (RALDH4), molecular cloning, cellular expression, and activity in 9-cis-retinoic acid biosynthesis in intact cells. Lin, M., Zhang, M., Abraham, M., Smith, S.M., Napoli, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Characterization of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3. Graham, C.E., Brocklehurst, K., Pickersgill, R.W., Warren, M.J. Biochem. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
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