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Gene Review

Aldh1a1  -  aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: ALDH-E1, ALDH1, ALHDII, Ahd-2, Ahd2, ...
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Disease relevance of Aldh1a1


Psychiatry related information on Aldh1a1


High impact information on Aldh1a1

  • Second-site suppressor mutations were uncovered in both E1 and E2 genes that allow for transformation, maintenance, and chromosomal attachment [8].
  • Bovine papilloma virus (BPV)-encoded E1 protein contains multiple activities required for BPV DNA replication [3].
  • These studies suggested that in particular the expression of ALDH delineated distinct CD34+ stem cell and progenitor compartments [9].
  • Cell fractionation according to lineage depletion and ALDH activity provides a viable and prospective purification of HSCs on the basis of cell function rather than cell surface phenotype [10].
  • We have purified primitive HSCs from human umbilical cord blood (UCB) by lineage depletion (Lin(-)) followed by selection of cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Aldh1a1


Biological context of Aldh1a1


Anatomical context of Aldh1a1

  • Thus, ADH-IV and ALDH-1, two metabolic enzymes able to convert retinol to retinoic acid, are both initially expressed in primitive streak mesoderm at E7.5 when retinoic acid is first detectable [18].
  • Raldh-3 was preferentially expressed first in the surface ectoderm overlying the ventral portion of the prospective eye region and then in the ventral retina, earlier than Raldh-1 in chick and mouse embryos [19].
  • Mouse ALDH exhibits extensive multiplicity, several forms of which have been characterized, including ALDH1 (liver cytoplasmic/class 1 isozyme); ALDH2 (liver mitochondrial/class 2.); ALDH3 (stomach cytosolic/class 3); ALDH4 (liver microsomal/class 3); and ALDH5 (testis cytosolic/class 3) [16].
  • Injection of ALDH1, but not ALDH-PB, mRNA stimulated retinoic acid synthesis in Xenopus embryos at the blastula stage [17].
  • These results could suggest a model for a molecular pathway from androgen receptor to retinoic acid biogenesis in Leydig cells via the mediation of ALDH [20].

Associations of Aldh1a1 with chemical compounds


Enzymatic interactions of Aldh1a1

  • We previously reported the purification and partial amino acid (aa) sequence of a rat kidney aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) isozyme that catalyzed the oxidation of 9-cis and all-trans retinal to corresponding RA with high efficiency [Labrecque et al. Biochem. J. 305 (1995) 681-684] [23].

Other interactions of Aldh1a1

  • Aldh1 spans about 45 kb in length, whereas Aldh-pb spans about 35 kb [17].
  • Sphere cells subcultured on plastic exhibited a dendritic morphology characteristic of keratocytes, and maintained keratocan, Aldh, and CD34 expression in serum-free medium [24].
  • One vector contained the additional promoter and the MA/CA genes immediately downstream of the VEE E1 gene at the 3' end of the genome [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Aldh1a1


  1. Susceptibility to inhalation toxicity of acetaldehyde in Aldh2 knockout mice. Oyama, T., Isse, T., Ogawa, M., Muto, M., Uchiyama, I., Kawamoto, T. Front. Biosci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Hepatic and testicular aldehyde dehydrogenase in tumor-bearing mice. Messiha, F.S. Veterinary and human toxicology. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Bovine papilloma virus (BPV)-encoded E1 protein contains multiple activities required for BPV DNA replication. Seo, Y.S., Müller, F., Lusky, M., Hurwitz, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Transplanted ALDHhiSSClo neural stem cells generate motor neurons and delay disease progression of nmd mice, an animal model of SMARD1. Corti, S., Locatelli, F., Papadimitriou, D., Donadoni, C., Del Bo, R., Crimi, M., Bordoni, A., Fortunato, F., Strazzer, S., Menozzi, G., Salani, S., Bresolin, N., Comi, G.P. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Induction of cytotoxic T-cell response against hepatitis C virus structural antigens using a defective recombinant adenovirus. Bruña-Romero, O., Lasarte, J.J., Wilkinson, G., Grace, K., Clarke, B., Borrás-Cuesta, F., Prieto, J. Hepatology (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Concurrent administration of diethyldithiocarbamate and 4-methylpyrazole enhances ethanol-induced locomotor activity: the role of brain ALDH. Escarabajal, M.D., Aragon, C.M. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Genetic differences in alcohol drinking preference between inbred strains of mice. He, X.X., Nebert, D.W., Vasiliou, V., Zhu, H., Shertzer, H.G. Pharmacogenetics (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Segregation of viral plasmids depends on tethering to chromosomes and is regulated by phosphorylation. Lehman, C.W., Botchan, M.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Distinct hematopoietic progenitor compartments are delineated by the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase and CD34. Storms, R.W., Green, P.D., Safford, K.M., Niedzwiecki, D., Cogle, C.R., Colvin, O.M., Chao, N.J., Rice, H.E., Smith, C.A. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Functional characterization of highly purified human hematopoietic repopulating cells isolated according to aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. Hess, D.A., Meyerrose, T.E., Wirthlin, L., Craft, T.P., Herrbrich, P.E., Creer, M.H., Nolta, J.A. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Comparative evaluation of cytotoxicity and metabolism of four aldehydes in two hepatoma cell lines. Bassi, A.M., Penco, S., Canuto, R.A., Muzio, G., Ferro, M. Drug and chemical toxicology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Signal recognition particle-dependent insertion of coronavirus E1, an intracellular membrane glycoprotein. Rottier, P., Armstrong, J., Meyer, D.I. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Coding region-specific destabilization of mRNA transcripts attenuates expression from retroviral vectors containing class 1 aldehyde dehydrogenase cDNAs. Bunting, K.D., Webb, M., Giorgianni, F., Galipeau, J., Blakley, R.L., Townsend, A.J., Sorrentino, B.P. Hum. Gene Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Genetics of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in the mouse: evidence for multiple loci and localization of Ahd-2 on chromosome 19. Timms, G.P., Holmes, R.S. Genetics (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. Genetic dissection of retinoid dehydrogenases. Duester, G. Chem. Biol. Interact. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Alcohol dehydrogenases and aldehyde dehydrogenases among inbred strains of mice: multiplicity, development, genetic studies and metabolic roles. Rout, U.K., Holmes, R.S. Addiction biology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular analysis of two closely related mouse aldehyde dehydrogenase genes: identification of a role for Aldh1, but not Aldh-pb, in the biosynthesis of retinoic acid. Hsu, L.C., Chang, W.C., Hoffmann, I., Duester, G. Biochem. J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Initiation of retinoid signaling in primitive streak mouse embryos: spatiotemporal expression patterns of receptors and metabolic enzymes for ligand synthesis. Ang, H.L., Duester, G. Dev. Dyn. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of RALDH-3, a novel retinaldehyde dehydrogenase, expressed in the ventral region of the retina. Suzuki, R., Shintani, T., Sakuta, H., Kato, A., Ohkawara, T., Osumi, N., Noda, M. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. The cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (Aldh1) is developmentally expressed in Leydig cells. López-Fernández, L.A., del Mazo, J. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Genetic evidence that retinaldehyde dehydrogenase Raldh1 (Aldh1a1) functions downstream of alcohol dehydrogenase Adh1 in metabolism of retinol to retinoic acid. Molotkov, A., Duester, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Tissue- and species-specific expression patterns of class I, III, and IV Adh and Aldh 1 mRNAs in rodent embryos. Westerlund, M., Galter, D., Carmine, A., Olson, L. Cell Tissue Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Cloning of a cDNA encoding rat aldehyde dehydrogenase with high activity for retinal oxidation. Bhat, P.V., Labrecque, J., Boutin, J.M., Lacroix, A., Yoshida, A. Gene (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Serum-free spheroid culture of mouse corneal keratocytes. Yoshida, S., Shimmura, S., Shimazaki, J., Shinozaki, N., Tsubota, K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vectors expressing HIV-1 proteins: vector design strategies for improved vaccine efficacy. Caley, I.J., Betts, M.R., Davis, N.L., Swanstrom, R., Frelinger, J.A., Johnston, R.E. Vaccine (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. A retinaldehyde dehydrogenase as a structural protein in a mammalian eye lens. Gene recruitment of eta-crystallin. Graham, C., Hodin, J., Wistow, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Mouse erythrocytes as carriers for coencapsulated alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase obtained by electroporation in vivo survival rate in circulation, organ distribution and ethanol degradation. Lizano, C., Pérez, M.T., Pinilla, M. Life Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Species variations in cutaneous alcohol dehydrogenases and aldehyde dehydrogenases may impact on toxicological assessments of alcohols and aldehydes. Cheung, C., Davies, N.G., Hoog, J.O., Hotchkiss, S.A., Smith Pease, C.K. Toxicology (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Assessment of aldehyde dehydrogenase in viable cells. Jones, R.J., Barber, J.P., Vala, M.S., Collector, M.I., Kaufmann, S.H., Ludeman, S.M., Colvin, O.M., Hilton, J. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
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