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Gene Review

NMUR2  -  neuromedin U receptor 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: FM-4, FM4, G-protein coupled receptor FM-4, G-protein coupled receptor TGR-1, NMU-R2, ...
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Disease relevance of NMUR2

  • We screened the NMU2R gene in 96 patients with severe early-onset obesity [1].
  • Neuromedin U 2 receptor (NMU2R) plays important roles for the regulation of food intake and body weight [2].
  • However, the Tg receptor positive fraction was readily activated by EBV to synthesize Tg antibody with a specific activity 4-10 times higher than that secreted by unfractionated lymphocytes [3].

Psychiatry related information on NMUR2


High impact information on NMUR2

  • TGR-1 mRNA was primarily expressed in the uterus, suggesting that TGR-1 mediates the contractile activity of neuromedin U in this tissue [5].
  • The rationale for the occurrence and distribution of the TR and TGR1 repeats on the tomato chromosomes are discussed [6].
  • The majority of the telomeres consisted of a TR and a TGR1 region separated by a spacer [6].
  • Expression of NMS and NMU2R genes was detected at the hypothalamus along postnatal development, with significant fluctuations of their relative levels (maximum at prepubertal stage and adulthood) [7].
  • In adult females, hypothalamic expression of NMS (which was confined to suprachiasmatic nucleus) and NMU2R significantly varied during the estrous cycle (maximum at proestrus) and was lowered after ovariectomy and enhanced after progesterone supplementation [7].

Biological context of NMUR2

  • Expression of NMU1R and NMU2R mRNA in rat and human tissue was determined using semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction [8].
  • In summary, we have identified two markedly different isoforms of the NMU-2 receptor, presumably arising through an ancient and complex mutational event; no genetic associations between this haplotype and obesity-related traits were, however, discerned [1].
  • These three bands appear to represent the proteins encoded by FM2 (the 73 kDa band), FM1 (the 71 kDa band), and FM4 (the 62 kDa band) since the apparent molecular weights are close to their theoretical weights of the predicted amino acid sequences [9].
  • In this study, we have identified four alternatively spliced RAD17 RNAs, FM1, FM2, FM3, and FM4, which are produced through alternative splicing within the first 300 base-pairs of the coding region [9].
  • A cell-based reporter gene assay has been developed and used for the screening of human NMU2R agonist [2].

Anatomical context of NMUR2


Associations of NMUR2 with chemical compounds

  • We found that neuromedin U specifically and clearly elevated the extracellular acidification rates, arachidonic acid metabolite release, and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing TGR-1 [5].
  • The experimental results demonstrate that icariin, isolated from Herba epimedii, was a strong agonist for NMU2R, which could selectively activate NMU2R, but not M1R, MC4R, and negative cell lines [4].
  • We have investigated whether a palmitate conjugate of a human monoclonal antibody specific for thyroglobulin (TG) could function as a surrogate TG receptor on blood mononuclear cells separated into fractions enriched for T cells or depleted of T cells (non-T cells) [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NMUR2


  1. Studies of the neuromedin U-2 receptor gene in human obesity: evidence for the existence of two ancestral forms of the receptor. Bhattacharyya, S., Luan, J., Farooqi, I.S., Keogh, J., Montague, C., Brennand, J., Jorde, L., Wareham, N.J., O'Rahilly, S. J. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Chemical genetic analysis reveals the effects of NMU2R on the expression of peptide hormones. Fang, L., Zhang, M., Li, C., Dong, S., Hu, Y. Neurosci. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Enrichment and depletion of thyroglobulin autoantibody synthesizing lymphocytes. McLachlan, S.M., Dickinson, A., Baylis, P., Proctor, S., Rees Smith, B. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Screening of active compounds as neuromedin U2 receptor agonist from natural products. Zheng, X., Hu, Y., Liu, J., Ouyang, K. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification and functional characterization of a novel subtype of neuromedin U receptor. Hosoya, M., Moriya, T., Kawamata, Y., Ohkubo, S., Fujii, R., Matsui, H., Shintani, Y., Fukusumi, S., Habata, Y., Hinuma, S., Onda, H., Nishimura, O., Fujino, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. FISH studies reveal the molecular and chromosomal organization of individual telomere domains in tomato. Zhong, X.B., Fransz, P.F., Wennekes-Eden, J., Ramanna, M.S., van Kammen, A., Zabel, P., Hans de Jong, J. Plant J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Neuromedin s as novel putative regulator of luteinizing hormone secretion. Vigo, E., Roa, J., López, M., Castellano, J.M., Fernandez-Fernandez, R., Navarro, V.M., Pineda, R., Aguilar, E., Diéguez, C., Pinilla, L., Tena-Sempere, M. Endocrinology (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Localisation of NMU1R and NMU2R in human and rat central nervous system and effects of neuromedin-U following central administration in rats. Gartlon, J., Szekeres, P., Pullen, M., Sarau, H.M., Aiyar, N., Shabon, U., Michalovich, D., Steplewski, K., Ellis, C., Elshourbagy, N., Duxon, M., Ashmeade, T.E., Harrison, D.C., Murdock, P., Wilson, S., Ennaceur, A., Atkins, A., Heidbreder, C., Hagan, J.J., Hunter, A.J., Jones, D.N. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Multiple alternative splicing forms of human RAD17 and their differential response to ionizing radiation. Chen, M.S., Higashikubo, R., Laszlo, A., Roti Roti, J. Gene (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Neuromedin U stimulates contraction of human long saphenous vein and gastrointestinal smooth muscle in vitro. Jones, N.A., Morton, M.F., Prendergast, C.E., Powell, G.L., Shankley, N.P., Hollingsworth, S.J. Regul. Pept. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of gonadotropin secretion and puberty onset by neuromedin U. Fukue, Y., Sato, T., Teranishi, H., Hanada, R., Takahashi, T., Nakashima, Y., Kojima, M. FEBS Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. A technique for the isolation and mitogenic activation of thyroglobulin-specific human B lymphocytes. McLachlan, S.M., Atherton, M.C., Middleton, S.L., Clark, F., Rees Smith, B. Immunol. Lett. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Surrogate thyroglobulin receptors and T cell proliferation in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Fukuma, N., Hoy, T., Phillips, D.I., McLachlan, S.M. Thyroid (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Distribution of neuromedin U receptor subtype 2 mRNA in the rat brain. Guan, X.M., Yu, H., Jiang, Q., Van Der Ploeg, L.H., Liu, Q. Brain Res. Gene Expr. Patterns (2001) [Pubmed]
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