The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

AR  -  androgen receptor

Macaca mulatta

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of AR


Psychiatry related information on AR

  • New information is provided on the changes in AR numbers in cortical and hypothalamic tissues during the critical period for sexual differentiation of the primate brain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[2]

High impact information on AR


Biological context of AR

  • In summary, these data show that primate ovary AR gene expression is most abundant in granulosa cells of healthy growing follicles, where its expression is up-regulated by testosterone [6].
  • Importantly, granulosa cell AR mRNA abundance was positively correlated with expression of the proliferation-specific antigen Ki-67 (r = 0.91; P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with granulosa cell apoptosis (r = -0.64; P < 0.001) [6].
  • The positive correlation between granulosa AR gene expression and cell proliferation and negative correlation with programmed cell death suggests that androgens stimulate early primate follicle development [6].
  • To investigate the regulation of ovarian AR gene expression, we compared the relative abundance of AR transcripts in monkeys during follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle and in monkeys treated with testosterone [6].
  • AR levels in frontal and temporal cortex were high on day 50 of gestation, but showed a significant decline by day 150 (P less than 0.05) [2].

Anatomical context of AR


Associations of AR with chemical compounds

  • Surprisingly, neither Cx for 3 wk nor Cx plus testosterone replacement for 3 wk significantly affected AR mRNA in any brain area or in the pituitary gland [7].
  • It appears that AR mRNA in the monkey brain and pituitary gland is not regulated at the transcriptional level by androgen [7].
  • Androgen receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in brains and pituitaries of male rhesus monkeys: studies on distribution, hormonal control, and relationship to luteinizing hormone secretion [7].
  • Nuclear AR was undetectable in castrated males and castrated males treated with E [8].
  • High levels of nuclear AR corresponded to serum T levels and low serum LH levels [8].

Other interactions of AR


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AR

  • Nuclear AR decreased after castration and increased after T treatment [8].
  • Microsomal AA and cytosolic and nuclear AR were determined in specific brain regions dissected from frozen sections [10].


  1. Localization and regulation of estrogen, progestin and androgen receptors in the seminal vesicle of the rhesus monkey. West, N.B., Chang, C.S., Liao, S.S., Brenner, R.M. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Ontogeny of cytosolic androgen receptors in the brain of the fetal rhesus monkey. Handa, R.J., Connolly, P.B., Resko, J.A. Endocrinology (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Androgens stimulate early stages of follicular growth in the primate ovary. Vendola, K.A., Zhou, J., Adesanya, O.O., Weil, S.J., Bondy, C.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Testosterone inhibits estrogen-induced mammary epithelial proliferation and suppresses estrogen receptor expression. Zhou, J., Ng, S., Adesanya-Famuiya, O., Anderson, K., Bondy, C.A. FASEB J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and dihydrotestosterone induce coronary hyperreactivity in intact male rhesus monkeys. Mishra, R.G., Hermsmeyer, R.K., Miyagawa, K., Sarrel, P., Uchida, B., Stanczyk, F.Z., Burry, K.A., Illingworth, D.R., Nordt, F.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Androgen receptor gene expression in the primate ovary: cellular localization, regulation, and functional correlations. Weil, S.J., Vendola, K., Zhou, J., Adesanya, O.O., Wang, J., Okafor, J., Bondy, C.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Androgen receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in brains and pituitaries of male rhesus monkeys: studies on distribution, hormonal control, and relationship to luteinizing hormone secretion. Abdelgadir, S.E., Roselli, C.E., Choate, J.V., Resko, J.A. Biol. Reprod. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of gonadectomy and hormone replacement on steroid hormone receptors and 5 alpha-reductase activity in pituitaries of male rhesus macaques. Handa, R.J., Resko, J.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of long-term treatment with steroid hormones or tamoxifen on the progesterone receptor and androgen receptor in the endometrium of ovariectomized cynomolgus macaques. Wang, H., Isaksson, E., von Schoultz, B., Cline, J.M., Sahlin, L. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Selective activation of androgen receptors in the subcortical brain of male cynomolgus macaques by physiological hormone levels and its relationship to androgen-dependent aromatase activity. Resko, J.A., Connolly, P.B., Roselli, C.E., Abdelgadir, S.E., Choate, J.V. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1993) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities