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Gene Review

Lxn  -  latexin

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: ECI, Endogenous carboxypeptidase inhibitor, Latexin, TCI, Tissue carboxypeptidase inhibitor
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High impact information on Lxn

  • Peptides were obtained by partial proteolysis of purified TCI, a protein of approximately 30 kDa, and starting from their sequences, a full-length cDNA encoding a 223-amino acid protein containing three potential phosphorylation sites was cloned from a cDNA library [1].
  • The widespread expression of TCI in a number of tissues (e.g., brain, lung, or digestive tract) and its apparently cytosolic localization point to a rather general functional role, e.g., in the control of cytosolic protein degradation [1].
  • Neurons expressing latexin, a carboxypeptidase A inhibitor, are restricted to lateral areas in the cerebral cortex of adult and early postnatal rats [2].
  • While a substantial fraction of early progenitor cells derived from the lateral cerebral wall became latexin-expressing neurons in both systems, far fewer progenitors from dorsal cortex did so under the same environmental conditions, indicating early establishment of cortical regional specification at the progenitor cell level [2].
  • In contrast, tracer injections involving the thalamus, striatum, or contralateral SII and Vi exclusively labeled latexin-nonexpressing neurons in both the SII and Vi [3].

Biological context of Lxn

  • The overall density, laminar or sublaminar localization, and cell size distribution of latexin-positive neurons differed substantially across cytoarchitectonic areas within lateral cortex [4].
  • These findings suggest that latexin plays a role in regional specification and/or morphogenesis of the forebrain, especially of its dorsal midline structures including the pineal gland [5].
  • In the present study, we performed clonal analysis of embryonic cortical neurons in vitro using latexin as a subtype-specific molecular marker of glutamatergic neurons to address whether certain precursors in early cortical anlage are already committed to a single molecular phenotype [6].

Anatomical context of Lxn

  • To study the molecular details of the protein, we isolated four independent cDNA clones for latexin from cDNA libraries of the rat cerebral cortex and whole brain using the amino acid sequences of latexin fragments [7].
  • These results indicate that latexin is a novel class of neuronal protein which represents intracortical regionality, and suggest that the regional specification of the neocortex involves selective parcellation of neurons which express a particular gene [7].
  • In the present study we examined the expression and subcellular localization of latexin in rat peritoneal mast cells [8].
  • These results show that latexin is synthesized in rat peritoneal mast cells and suggest that it is associated with a unique type of intracellular granules distinct from MCCPA- and histamine-containing secretory granules and lysosomes [8].
  • 1.5 T MR imaging performed 2 months after spinal cord hemisection and SC bridging transplantation is sensitive in detecting low-intensity regenerative tissue cables, and (2). the TCI strongly correlates with the extent of axonal regeneration into implanted SC-seeded guidance channels [9].

Associations of Lxn with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Lxn

  • In the present study, we first demonstrate in the adult rat that the orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 is coexpressed in latexin-expressing neurons located in layer V, sublayer VIa, and the white matter of the lateral sector of the neocortex, and also in latexin-negative early born neurons in sublayer VIb of the entire neocortex [11].

Other interactions of Lxn


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lxn


  1. Purification, cDNA cloning, functional expression, and characterization of a 26-kDa endogenous mammalian carboxypeptidase inhibitor. Normant, E., Martres, M.P., Schwartz, J.C., Gros, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Cerebral cortical specification by early potential restriction of progenitor cells and later phenotype control of postmitotic neurons. Arimatsu, Y., Ishida, M., Takiguchi-Hayashi, K., Uratani, Y. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Corticocortical associative neurons expressing latexin: specific cortical connectivity formed in vivo and in vitro. Arimatsu, Y., Ishida, M., Sato, M., Kojima, M. Cereb. Cortex (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Area- and lamina-specific organization of a neuronal subpopulation defined by expression of latexin in the rat cerebral cortex. Arimatsu, Y., Kojima, M., Ishida, M. Neuroscience (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Restricted expression of latexin in dorsal midline cells of developing rat forebrain. Takiguchi-Hayashi, K., Arimatsu, Y. Neuroreport (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. In vitro clonal analysis of rat cerebral cortical neurons expressing latexin, a subtype-specific molecular marker of glutamatergic neurons. Takiguchi-Hayashi, K. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Intracortical regionality represented by specific transcription for a novel protein, latexin. Hatanaka, Y., Uratani, Y., Takiguchi-Hayashi, K., Omori, A., Sato, K., Miyamoto, M., Arimatsu, Y. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Latexin, a carboxypeptidase A inhibitor, is expressed in rat peritoneal mast cells and is associated with granular structures distinct from secretory granules and lysosomes. Uratani, Y., Takiguchi-Hayashi, K., Miyasaka, N., Sato, M., Jin, M., Arimatsu, Y. Biochem. J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of regenerative tissue cables using in vivo MRI after spinal cord hemisection and schwann cell bridging transplantation. Iannotti, C., Li, H., Stemmler, M., Perman, W.H., Xu, X.M. J. Neurotrauma (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of antidotes to cocaine on the deregulation of the baroreflex by the alkaloid. Trouvé, R., Nahas, G.G., Arnaoudov, P.I., Latour, C. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Organization and development of corticocortical associative neurons expressing the orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1. Arimatsu, Y., Ishida, M., Kaneko, T., Ichinose, S., Omori, A. J. Comp. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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