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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Immunization


High impact information on Immunization

  • Immunostimulation by siRNA was absent in TLR7-deficient mice [6].
  • With nearly two billion immunizations, BCG has a long record of safe use in man [7].
  • The minimal 136 amino acid, mycobacterial HSP70 peptide binding domain can generate CTL responses, and a single amino acid mutant HSP70 designed to prevent peptide binding but retain stimulatory capacity has allowed us to separate antigen delivery from DC immunostimulation [8].
  • In contrast, immunizations with nonreplicating antigens revealed an important role of B cell stimulation via CR2 in the switch to IgG [9].
  • Mice immunized at least three times with T15 in adjuvants had markedly suppressed responses to subsequent immunization with PC; similarly, mice preimmunized multiple times with PC had suppressed responses to immunizations with T15 [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Immunization


Biological context of Immunization

  • Immunizations of outbred rabbits with the monoepitope MAP that contains the pre-S(2) antigen resulted in high-titered antibody response to the middle protein, but the other monoepitope, containing only the a-determinant peptide antigen, resulted in poor immune responses to either the peptide antigens or to the S protein [16].
  • Antibodies generated in independent immunizations, either with Ag-positive tumor cells or with anti-idiotypic antibodies produced by immunization of goats with a GA733-specific antibody, all use members of the same gene families; remarkably, they also express identical amino acid sequences in their H chain CDR3 [17].
  • We conclude that immunologic sensitization can develop after occupational exposure to encapsulated BDE in the dry bleach industry [18].
  • Repeated immunizations with these cells protected 60% of mice against challenge with MethA sarcoma cells bearing point mutations in p53 gene [19].
  • However, both a yeast-derived Ty virus-like particle expressing the optimal nine-amino acid epitope SYIPSAEKI from the CS protein (CSP-VLP) and a lipid-tailed peptide of this same sequence induced high levels of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted CTL with one and three subcutaneous immunizations, respectively [20].

Anatomical context of Immunization


Associations of Immunization with chemical compounds


Gene context of Immunization


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Immunization


  1. Enhanced host resistance to transplantable murine lymphosarcoma in Swiss mice by combined immunostimulation with BCG and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. Poduval, T.B., Seshadri, M., Sundaram, K. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Levamisole-induced immunostimulation in spondylarthropathies. Goebel, K.M., Goebel, F.D., Schubotz, R., Hahn, E., Neurath, F. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Systemic administration of interleukin 2 enhances the therapeutic efficacy of dendritic cell-based tumor vaccines. Shimizu, K., Fields, R.C., Giedlin, M., Mulé, J.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Downregulation of the proinflammatory cytokine response to endotoxin by pretreatment with the nontoxic lipid A analog SDZ MRL 953 in cancer patients. Kiani, A., Tschiersch, A., Gaboriau, E., Otto, F., Seiz, A., Knopf, H.P., Stütz, P., Färber, L., Haus, U., Galanos, C., Mertelsmann, R., Engelhardt, R. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Monoclonal antibody T-199 directed against human medulloblastoma: characterization of a new antigenic system expressed on neuroectodermal tumors and natural killer cells. Feickert, H.J., Pietsch, T., Hadam, M.R., Mildenberger, H., Riehm, H. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Sequence-specific potent induction of IFN-alpha by short interfering RNA in plasmacytoid dendritic cells through TLR7. Hornung, V., Guenthner-Biller, M., Bourquin, C., Ablasser, A., Schlee, M., Uematsu, S., Noronha, A., Manoharan, M., Akira, S., de Fougerolles, A., Endres, S., Hartmann, G. Nat. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to live recombinant BCG-HIV vaccines. Aldovini, A., Young, R.A. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. HSP70 peptide binding mutants separate antigen delivery from dendritic cell stimulation. MacAry, P.A., Javid, B., Floto, R.A., Smith, K.G., Oehlmann, W., Singh, M., Lehner, P.J. Immunity (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Protective T cell-independent antiviral antibody responses are dependent on complement. Ochsenbein, A.F., Pinschewer, D.D., Odermatt, B., Carroll, M.C., Hengartner, H., Zinkernagel, R.M. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Suppression by autogenous complementary idiotypes: the priority of the first response. Rowley, D.A., Köhler, H., Schreiber, H., Kaye, S.T., Lorbach, I. J. Exp. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. Modulation of murine cytokine responses to mycobacterial antigens by helminth-induced T helper 2 cell responses. Pearlman, E., Kazura, J.W., Hazlett, F.E., Boom, W.H. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Immunization of rabbits with recombinant Treponema pallidum surface antigen 4D alters the course of experimental syphilis. Borenstein, L.A., Radolf, J.D., Fehniger, T.E., Blanco, D.R., Miller, J.N., Lovett, M.A. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Construction of an HIV-1 peptide vaccine containing a multideterminant helper peptide linked to a V3 loop peptide 18 inducing strong neutralizing antibody responses in mice of multiple MHC haplotypes after two immunizations. Ahlers, J.D., Pendleton, C.D., Dunlop, N., Minassian, A., Nara, P.L., Berzofsky, J.A. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Purified envelope glycoproteins from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants induce individual, type-specific neutralizing antibodies. Nara, P.L., Robey, W.G., Pyle, S.W., Hatch, W.C., Dunlop, N.M., Bess, J.W., Kelliher, J.C., Arthur, L.O., Fischinger, P.J. J. Virol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Construction and characterization of bivalent Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine strains SC608(pCFAI) and SC608(pCFAI/LTB) that express antigens from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Ranallo, R.T., Fonseka, C.P., Cassels, F., Srinivasan, J., Venkatesan, M.M. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Vaccine engineering: enhancement of immunogenicity of synthetic peptide vaccines related to hepatitis in chemically defined models consisting of T- and B-cell epitopes. Tam, J.P., Lu, Y.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Identical D region sequences expressed by murine monoclonal antibodies specific for a human tumor-associated antigen. Caton, A.J., Herlyn, D., Ross, A.H., Koprowski, H. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Failure of enzyme encapsulation to prevent sensitization of workers in the dry bleach industry. Liss, G.M., Kominsky, J.R., Gallagher, J.S., Melius, J., Brooks, S.M., Bernstein, I.L. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. An effective immunization and cancer treatment with activated dendritic cells transduced with full-length wild-type p53. Nikitina, E.Y., Chada, S., Muro-Cacho, C., Fang, B., Zhang, R., Roth, J.A., Gabrilovich, D.I. Gene Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Comparison of numerous delivery systems for the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes by immunization. Allsopp, C.E., Plebanski, M., Gilbert, S., Sinden, R.E., Harris, S., Frankel, G., Dougan, G., Hioe, C., Nixon, D., Paoletti, E., Layton, G., Hill, A.V. Eur. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Sensitization to self (virus) antigen by in situ expression of murine interferon-gamma. Lee, M.S., von Herrath, M., Reiser, H., Oldstone, M.B., Sarvetnick, N. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Immunologically activated chloride channels involved in degranulation of rat mucosal mast cells. Romanin, C., Reinsprecht, M., Pecht, I., Schindler, H. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Induction of nitric oxide synthase activity by toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 in a macrophage-monocyte cell line. Zembowicz, A., Vane, J.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Vaccination for protection of retinal ganglion cells against death from glutamate cytotoxicity and ocular hypertension: implications for glaucoma. Schori, H., Kipnis, J., Yoles, E., WoldeMussie, E., Ruiz, G., Wheeler, L.A., Schwartz, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Eradication of established intracranial rat gliomas by transforming growth factor beta antisense gene therapy. Fakhrai, H., Dorigo, O., Shawler, D.L., Lin, H., Mercola, D., Black, K.L., Royston, I., Sobol, R.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Humoral immunostimulation. IV. Role of complement. Shearer, W.T., Atkinson, J.P., Frank, M.M., Parker, C.W. J. Exp. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. Boosted mucosal immune responsiveness in the rat intestine by actively transported hexose. Zhang, S., Castro, G.A. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. DNA vaccines: protective immunizations by parenteral, mucosal, and gene-gun inoculations. Fynan, E.F., Webster, R.G., Fuller, D.H., Haynes, J.R., Santoro, J.C., Robinson, H.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Bioregulation of lysosomal enzyme secretion from human neutrophils: roles of guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate and calcium in stimulus-secretion coupling. Smith, R.J., Ignarro, L.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  30. Lack of effect of cyclophosphamide on the immunogenicity of a melanoma antigen vaccine. Oratz, R., Dugan, M., Roses, D.F., Harris, M.N., Speyer, J.L., Hochster, H., Weissman, J., Henn, M., Bystryn, J.C. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Protein kinase C regulates proliferation of mast cells and the expression of the mRNAs of fos and jun proto-oncogenes during activation by IgE-Ag or calcium ionophore A23187. Baranes, D., Razin, E. Blood (1991) [Pubmed]
  32. Infection of mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells with human cytomegalovirus inhibits stimulation of T-cell proliferation via the release of soluble CD83. Sénéchal, B., Boruchov, A.M., Reagan, J.L., Hart, D.N., Young, J.W. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Endogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor overexpression in vivo results in the long-term recruitment of a distinct dendritic cell population with enhanced immunostimulatory function. Miller, G., Pillarisetty, V.G., Shah, A.B., Lahrs, S., Xing, Z., DeMatteo, R.P. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Markers of human T cell subsets identified by alloantisera. Ferrara, G.B., Strelkauskas, A.J., Longo, A., McDowell, J., Yunis, E.J., Schlossman, S.F. J. Immunol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  35. Cutting edge: the G-U mismatch glycosylase methyl-CpG binding domain 4 is dispensable for somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination. Bardwell, P.D., Martin, A., Wong, E., Li, Z., Edelmann, W., Scharff, M.D. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Production of monoclonal antibodies against calmodulin by in vitro immunization of spleen cells. Pardue, R.L., Brady, R.C., Perry, G.W., Dedman, J.R. J. Cell Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  37. Differential IL-10R1 expression plays a critical role in IL-10-mediated immune regulation. Ding, Y., Qin, L., Zamarin, D., Kotenko, S.V., Pestka, S., Moore, K.W., Bromberg, J.S. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Lack of J chain inhibits the transport of gut IgA and abrogates the development of intestinal antitoxic protection. Lycke, N., Erlandsson, L., Ekman, L., Schön, K., Leanderson, T. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. Synergistic effect of glucantime and a liposome-encapsulated muramyl dipeptide analog in therapy of experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Adinolfi, L.E., Bonventre, P.F., Vander Pas, M., Eppstein, D.A. Infect. Immun. (1985) [Pubmed]
  40. Depression of theophylline elimination following BCG vaccination. Gray, J.D., Renton, K.W., Hung, O.R. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1983) [Pubmed]
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