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Gene Review

RPL21  -  ribosomal protein L21

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 60S ribosomal protein L21, DKFZp686C06101, FLJ27458, HYPT12, L21, ...
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Disease relevance of RPL21

  • During systematic analysis of the mRNAs expressed in a human colorectal carcinoma with the aim of evidencing new makers of the disease (Frigerio et al. (1995), in press), we isolated several clones corresponding to homologs of rat ribosomal protein mRNAs L5, L21, L27a, L28, S5, S9, S10 and S29 [1].

High impact information on RPL21


Biological context of RPL21

  • We have chosen the previously characterised RPL21 gene encoding plastid-localised ribosomal proteins RPL21, to analyse activation of gene expression during germination [6].
  • We describe the purification and characterization of the spinach chloroplast ribosomal protein L21 and the isolation and nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone that encodes its cytoplasmic precursor [7].
  • Relative to L22 ewes, L21 and H22 ewes had lower worm burdens, parasite per capita fecundity and in vitro establishment rates of both T. circumcincta and Haemonchus contortus [8].
  • Phorbol ester induction of differentiation and apoptosis in the K562 cell line is accompanied by marked decreases in the stability of globin mRNAs and decreases in the steady state level of mRNAs encoding for ribosomal proteins L35, L31, L27, and L21 [9].

Anatomical context of RPL21

  • The use of L21 and similar monoclonal antibodies provides a more sensitive means of detecting In(Lu) erythrocytes than typing with human anti-Lub antisera [4].
  • L21 reacted weakly with peripheral monocytes and granulocytes but not other normal peripheral blood cells [10].
  • Mucosal mast cell and eosinophil counts were similar for all ewes, but H22 ewes had higher globule leukocyte counts than L22 and L21 ewes [8].

Associations of RPL21 with chemical compounds

  • The cDNA clone also encodes a 55-residue long transit peptide (with a high proportion of the polar residues, threonine and serine), to target the L21 protein into chloroplasts [7].
  • Inhibition of most of the expression of the cysteine proteinases of Entamoeba histolytica strain HM-1:IMSS was successfully performed by transcription of ehcp5 antisense RNA using the promoter of ehg34, which encodes a L21 ribosomal protein of E. histolytica [11].
  • About 90% of recent isolates belonged to type L21, indicating the spread of a specific type of MRSA in Japan. Of the type L21 strains, 41.9% included the aac(6')/aph(2") gene, which was one of the risk factors of arbekacin (ABK) resistance, but only 5.5% were resistant to ABK [12].

Other interactions of RPL21


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RPL21

  • From partial sequence analysis, two cDNAs were shown to code for the ribosomal (r-) proteins, simian L44 and human L21, and the others were shown to be new [16].
  • SDS-PAGE analyses of the L21 immunoprecipitate under non-reducing conditions revealed a single band of 61,000 MW, while two bands of 46,000 and 49,000 MW were detected under reducing conditions [10].


  1. Cloning, sequencing and expression of the L5, L21, L27a, L28, S5, S9, S10 and S29 human ribosomal protein mRNAs. Frigerio, J.M., Dagorn, J.C., Iovanna, J.L. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Subpopulations of chloroplast ribosomes change during photoregulated development of Zea mays leaves: ribosomal proteins L2, L21, and L29. Zhao, Y.Y., Xu, T., Zucchi, P., Bogorad, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Structure and expression of the nuclear gene coding for the chloroplast ribosomal protein L21: developmental regulation of a housekeeping gene by alternative promoters. Lagrange, T., Franzetti, B., Axelos, M., Mache, R., Lerbs-Mache, S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. New abnormalities in the morphology, cell surface receptors, and electrolyte metabolism of In(Lu) erythrocytes. Udden, M.M., Umeda, M., Hirano, Y., Marcus, D.M. Blood (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification and analysis of over 2000 ribosomal protein pseudogenes in the human genome. Zhang, Z., Harrison, P., Gerstein, M. Genome Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. A nuclear transcription factor related to plastid ribosome biogenesis is synthesised early during germination and priming. Achard, P., Job, D., Mache, R. FEBS Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. A ribosomal protein is encoded in the chloroplast DNA in a lower plant but in the nucleus in angiosperms. Isolation of the spinach L21 protein and cDNA clone with transit and an unusual repeat sequence. Smooker, P.M., Kruft, V., Subramanian, A.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Rapid improvement of immunity to Teladorsagia circumcincta is achieved through a reduction in the demand for protein in lactating ewes. Houdijk, J.G., Jackson, F., Coop, R.L., Kyriazakis, I. Int. J. Parasitol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Phorbol ester induction of differentiation and apoptosis in the K562 cell line is accompanied by marked decreases in the stability of globin mRNAs and decreases in the steady state level of mRNAs encoding for ribosomal proteins L35, L31, L27, and L21. Lin, C.H., Palma, J.F., Solomon, W.B. Cell. Mol. Biol. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Application of a novel immunization protocol to the production of monoclonal antibodies specific for macrophages in human placenta. Nash, A.D., Uren, S., Hawes, C.S., Boyle, W. Immunology (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Antisense inhibition of expression of cysteine proteinases does not affect Entamoeba histolytica cytopathic or haemolytic activity but inhibits phagocytosis. Ankri, S., Stolarsky, T., Mirelman, D. Mol. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Trends of arbekacin-resistant MRSA strains in Japanese hospitals (1979 to 2000). Tsuchizaki, N., Ishino, K., Saito, F., Ishikawa, J., Nakajima, M., Hotta, K. J. Antibiot. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Complete genomic sequence and analysis of 117 kb of human DNA containing the gene BRCA1. Smith, T.M., Lee, M.K., Szabo, C.I., Jerome, N., McEuen, M., Taylor, M., Hood, L., King, M.C. Genome Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Whole-genome screening indicates a possible burst of formation of processed pseudogenes and Alu repeats by particular L1 subfamilies in ancestral primates. Ohshima, K., Hattori, M., Yada, T., Gojobori, T., Sakaki, Y., Okada, N. Genome Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Transcriptional regulators of ribosomal biogenesis are increased in the unloaded heart. Razeghi, P., Buksinska-Lisik, M., Palanichamy, N., Stepkowski, S., Frazier, O.H., Taegtmeyer, H. FASEB J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Use of an epitope-tagged cDNA library to isolate cDNAs encoding proteins with nuclear localization potential. Sugano, S., Kim, D.W., Yu, Y.S., Mizushima-Sugano, J., Yoshitomo, K., Watanabe, S., Suzuki, F., Yamaguchi, N. Gene (1992) [Pubmed]
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