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Gene Review

CALB1  -  calbindin 1, 28kDa

Macaca mulatta

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Disease relevance of CALB1


High impact information on CALB1

  • Moreover, resistance against distracting stimuli (a fundamental property of working memory) is dynamically controlled by dendrite-targeting (calbindin-containing) interneurons [2].
  • In double-label experiments, 5-HT2A label was found in calbindin D28k-positive, nonphosphorylated-neurofilament-positive, and immuno-negative pyramidal cells, suggesting that probably all pyramidal cells express 5-HT2A receptors [3].
  • Long-term dorsal rhizotomies in monkeys lead to transneuronal degeneration of parvalbumin cells at brainstem and thalamic sites accompanied in the thalamus by a down-regulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors and an apparent increase in activity of calbindin cells preferentially innervated by central pain pathways [4].
  • Calbindin and TH immunoreactivities were diminished in the matrix of caudate and putamen of SD monkeys [5].
  • The results showed that differences in the density of neurons, and the preponderance of neurons positive for PV and CB, were related to different architectonic types of areas found within the prefrontal cortex [6].

Biological context of CALB1

  • The present study shows distinct temporal profiles of neurochemical development during the second half of gestation: the dense neuropeptidergic innervation remained a constant feature; the three aminergic systems gradually increased in density; parvalbumin, unlike calbindin D-28K, was primarily expressed during the last quarter of gestation [7].
  • Measurement of CB-positive cell density in V1 and V2 showed a significant decrease in CB labeling to the contralateral side of the ET-1-treated eye (P < 0.04) [8].
  • We investigated the patterns of projections from the pulvinar to visual areas V1, V2, V4, and MT, and their relationships to pulvinar subdivisions based on patterns of calbindin (CB) immunostaining and estimates of visual field maps (P(1), P(2) and P(3)) [9].
  • At all fetal ages examined (E110-E155), Cajal-Retzius neurons throughout the cortex were immunoreactive for calbindin as well as being acetylcholinesterase positive [10].

Anatomical context of CALB1

  • Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the distribution of calbindin (CB) and c-Fos labeled neurons in the visual cortex areas V1 and V2, and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) [8].
  • The authors reported in a previous paper the precocious differentiation of the entorhinal cortex in rhesus monkey fetuses and featured the conspicuous expression of calbindin D-28K, somatostatin, neurotensin, and the monoaminergic innervation during the first half of gestation [7].
  • This calbindin-poor zone, termed the medial division of the inferior pulvinar (PIM), corresponds precisely to a region that contains elevated cytochrome oxidase activity and parvalbumin immunostaining [11].
  • PIM was distinguished by less intense neuropil staining for calbindin and many cells stained with the SMI-32 antibody for neurofilament protein [12].
  • The majority of labelled axons were varicose, and formed multiple contacts with cell bodies and dendrites of calbindin D28k- and parvalbumin-immunoreactive non-pyramidal cells [13].

Associations of CALB1 with chemical compounds

  • Dual role of substance P/GABA axons in cortical neurotransmission: synaptic triads on pyramidal cell spines and basket-like innervation of layer II-III calbindin interneurons in primate prefrontal cortex [14].
  • In the olfactory and rostral fields, TH positive dopaminergic fibers accumulated on the neuronal islands of layers II-III, and parvalbumin labeled fibers on those of layer III, whereas patches of 5-HT and NT-like reactive terminals were segregated between the cellular islands, overlapping the DARPP-32/calbindin D-28 K labeled dendritic bundles [7].
  • SPR/choline acetyltransferase, SPR/somatostatin, SPR/GABA, SPR/calbindin D28k, and SPR/parvalbumin double immunolabeling experiments demonstrated that SPR-positive cells are either cholinergic or somatostatinergic [15].
  • Medium-sized spiny neurons containing calbindin Dk28, enkephalin, and substance P were disproportionately lost, while aspiny neuronal subpopulations containing NADPH diaphorase (NADPH-d) and choline acetyltransferase activity (ChAT) were relatively spared [16].

Other interactions of CALB1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CALB1


  1. Neurovirulent simian immunodeficiency virus induces calbindin-D-28K in astrocytes. Berman, N.E., Yong, C., Raghavan, R., Raymond, L.A., Joag, S.V., Narayan, O., Cheney, P.D. Mol. Chem. Neuropathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Division of labor among distinct subtypes of inhibitory neurons in a cortical microcircuit of working memory. Wang, X.J., Tegnér, J., Constantinidis, C., Goldman-Rakic, P.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. 5-Hydroxytryptamine2A serotonin receptors in the primate cerebral cortex: possible site of action of hallucinogenic and antipsychotic drugs in pyramidal cell apical dendrites. Jakab, R.L., Goldman-Rakic, P.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Chronic deafferentation in monkeys differentially affects nociceptive and nonnociceptive pathways distinguished by specific calcium-binding proteins and down-regulates gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors at thalamic levels. Rausell, E., Cusick, C.G., Taub, E., Jones, E.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Social deprivation of infant rhesus monkeys alters the chemoarchitecture of the brain: I. Subcortical regions. Martin, L.J., Spicer, D.M., Lewis, M.H., Gluck, J.P., Cork, L.C. J. Neurosci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Quantitative architecture distinguishes prefrontal cortical systems in the rhesus monkey. Dombrowski, S.M., Hilgetag, C.C., Barbas, H. Cereb. Cortex (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Neurochemical development of the hippocampal region in the fetal rhesus monkey. II. Immunocytochemistry of peptides, calcium-binding proteins, DARPP-32, and monoamine innervation in the entorhinal cortex by the end of gestation. Berger, B., Alvarez, C. Hippocampus. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Functional and structural analysis of the visual system in the rhesus monkey model of optic nerve head ischemia. Brooks, D.E., Källberg, M.E., Cannon, R.L., Komàromy, A.M., Ollivier, F.J., Malakhova, O.E., Dawson, W.W., Sherwood, M.B., Kuekuerichkina, E.E., Lambrou, G.N. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Visual cortical projections and chemoarchitecture of macaque monkey pulvinar. Adams, M.M., Hof, P.R., Gattass, R., Webster, M.J., Ungerleider, L.G. J. Comp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Cajal-Retzius neurons in developing monkey neocortex show immunoreactivity for calcium binding proteins. Huntley, G.W., Jones, E.G. J. Neurocytol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Chemoarchitectonic subdivisions of the visual pulvinar in monkeys and their connectional relations with the middle temporal and rostral dorsolateral visual areas, MT and DLr. Cusick, C.G., Scripter, J.L., Darensbourg, J.G., Weber, J.T. J. Comp. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Neurochemical subdivisions of the inferior pulvinar in macaque monkeys. Gutierrez, C., Yaun, A., Cusick, C.G. J. Comp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Septal GABAergic neurons innervate inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus of the macaque monkey. Gulyás, A.I., Seress, L., Tóth, K., Acsády, L., Antal, M., Freund, T.F. Neuroscience (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Dual role of substance P/GABA axons in cortical neurotransmission: synaptic triads on pyramidal cell spines and basket-like innervation of layer II-III calbindin interneurons in primate prefrontal cortex. Jakab, R.L., Goldman-Rakic, P., Leranth, C. Cereb. Cortex (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Distribution and neurochemical character of substance P receptor (SPR)-immunoreactive striatal neurons of the macaque monkey: accumulation of SP fibers and SPR neurons and dendrites in "striocapsules" encircling striosomes. Jakab, R.L., Hazrati, L.N., Goldman-Rakic, P. J. Comp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Excitotoxin lesions in primates as a model for Huntington's disease: histopathologic and neurochemical characterization. Ferrante, R.J., Kowall, N.W., Cipolloni, P.B., Storey, E., Beal, M.F. Exp. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Segregation of serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors in inhibitory circuits of the primate cerebral cortex. Jakab, R.L., Goldman-Rakic, P.S. J. Comp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Synaptic connections of DB3 diffuse bipolar cell axons in macaque retina. Jacoby, R.A., Marshak, D.W. J. Comp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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