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Gene Review

TMOD1  -  tropomodulin 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: D9S57E, E-Tmod, ETMOD, Erythrocyte tropomodulin, TMOD, ...
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Disease relevance of TMOD1


High impact information on TMOD1


Biological context of TMOD1


Anatomical context of TMOD1


Associations of TMOD1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of TMOD1


Co-localisations of TMOD1


Other interactions of TMOD1

  • Among several tropomyosin isoforms tested, hTM5 encoded by the human gamma-tropomyosin gene has the highest affinity toward human erythrocyte tropomodulin [12].
  • Tropomodulin labeling also colocalizes with desmin and beta-amyloid proteins which are concentrated in the postsynaptic region [13].
  • The insertion of several homologous repeats in the midsection of the Graves protein, together with the extension of a proline-rich C terminus, accounts for the differences in length between the Graves protein (572 residues) and tropomodulin (359 residues) [2].
  • Among the potentially relevant genes, PIP 5K1C, VIP, tropomodulin, and MMP2 encoded mediators known to influence outflow resistance [17].
  • The distribution of actin filaments is regulated by the binding of end-binding proteins, including capping protein (CapZ in muscle), the Arp2/3 complex, gelsolin, formin and tropomodulin, to the end of the actin filament [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TMOD1


  1. Tropomyosin requires an intact N-terminal coiled coil to interact with tropomodulin. Greenfield, N.J., Fowler, V.M. Biophys. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Gene assignment, expression, and homology of human tropomodulin. Sung, L.A., Fan, Y., Lin, C.C. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Localization of the human 64kD autoantigen D1 to myofibrils in a subset of extraocular muscle fibers. Conley, C.A., Fowler, V.M. Curr. Eye Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Prevention of cardiac hypertrophy in mice by calcineurin inhibition. Sussman, M.A., Lim, H.W., Gude, N., Taigen, T., Olson, E.N., Robbins, J., Colbert, M.C., Gualberto, A., Wieczorek, D.F., Molkentin, J.D. Science (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation of actin filament length in erythrocytes and striated muscle. Fowler, V.M. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Pointed-end capping by tropomodulin3 negatively regulates endothelial cell motility. Fischer, R.S., Fritz-Six, K.L., Fowler, V.M. J. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Tropomodulin caps the pointed ends of actin filaments. Weber, A., Pennise, C.R., Babcock, G.G., Fowler, V.M. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Tropomodulin-binding site mapped to residues 7-14 at the N-terminal heptad repeats of tropomyosin isoform 5. Vera, C., Sood, A., Gao, K.M., Yee, L.J., Lin, J.J., Sung, L.A. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of human fetal liver tropomodulin. A tropomyosin-binding protein. Sung, L.A., Fowler, V.M., Lambert, K., Sussman, M.A., Karr, D., Chien, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Mapping the tropomyosin isoform 5 binding site on human erythrocyte tropomodulin: further insights into E-Tmod/TM5 interaction. Vera, C., Lao, J., Hamelberg, D., Sung, L.A. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. The N-terminal end of nebulin interacts with tropomodulin at the pointed ends of the thin filaments. McElhinny, A.S., Kolmerer, B., Fowler, V.M., Labeit, S., Gregorio, C.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Erythrocyte tropomodulin binds to the N-terminus of hTM5, a tropomyosin isoform encoded by the gamma-tropomyosin gene. Sung, L.A., Lin, J.J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Tropomodulin is highly concentrated at the postsynaptic domain of human and rat neuromuscular junctions. Sussman, M.A., Bilak, M., Kedes, L., Engel, W.K., Askanas, V. Exp. Cell Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Leucine 135 of tropomodulin-1 regulates its association with tropomyosin, its cellular localization, and the integrity of sarcomeres. Kong, K.Y., Kedes, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. The lens membrane skeleton contains structures preferentially enriched in spectrin-actin or tropomodulin-actin complexes. Woo, M.K., Lee, A., Fischer, R.S., Moyer, J., Fowler, V.M. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Tropomodulin binding to tropomyosins. Isoform-specific differences in affinity and stoichiometry. Sussman, M.A., Fowler, V.M. Eur. J. Biochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Genes expressed in the human trabecular meshwork during pressure-induced homeostatic response. Vittitow, J., Borrás, T. J. Cell. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Molecular determination by electron microscopy of the actin filament end structure. Narita, A., Ma??da, Y. J. Mol. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Immunolocalization of tropomodulin, tropomyosin and actin in spread human erythrocyte skeletons. Ursitti, J.A., Fowler, V.M. J. Cell. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Tropomodulin is associated with the free (pointed) ends of the thin filaments in rat skeletal muscle. Fowler, V.M., Sussmann, M.A., Miller, P.G., Flucher, B.E., Daniels, M.P. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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