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Gene Review

TRO  -  trophinin

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: KIAA1114, MAGE-D3, MAGE-D3 antigen, MAGE-d3, MAGED3, ...
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Disease relevance of TRO


High impact information on TRO


Biological context of TRO


Anatomical context of TRO


Associations of TRO with chemical compounds

  • Intracerebroventricular infusion of cytosine-beta-d-arabiofuranoside (Ara-C) eliminated trophinin-positive cells in the SVZ [11].
  • CHEB, TRE, and TRO LC genes were found to be highly homologous to the same germline gene O2/O12 [12].
  • Addition of sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) to ozonated waters resulted in TRO elimination and survival of all organisms [13].

Physical interactions of TRO

  • In the absence of GWRQ, trophinin interacted with the cytoplasmic protein bystin, which binds to ErbB4 and blocks its autophosphorylation [14].

Other interactions of TRO

  • Trophinin and tastin, however, do not directly bind to each other, suggesting the presence of an intermediary protein [7].
  • The MAGE-D proteins contain an additional, fourth domain, which in the case of MAGE-D3 coincides with trophinin, a separate molecule described previously as an adhesion molecule that participates in embryo implantation [15].
  • We compared the clinical and radiographic outcome of 15 hips converted to total hip arthroplasty after failed transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy (THA after TRO) for avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) with that of a matched control group of 16 hips with primary THA for ANFH [3].
  • We now report on the primary structure of three other kappa-LC of the V kappa l variability subgroup associated with FS (TRE, TRO, and DEL) [12].
  • The development of the OAP cytostatics CP, IFO, TRO, and SUFO derives from the idea of applying the principle of transport form/active form to the highly reactive nitrogen mustard compounds [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TRO


  1. Implantation-dependent expression of trophinin by maternal fallopian tube epithelia during tubal pregnancies: possible role of human chorionic gonadotrophin on ectopic pregnancy. Nakayama, J., Aoki, D., Suga, T., Akama, T.O., Ishizone, S., Yamaguchi, H., Imakawa, K., Nadano, D., Fazleabas, A.T., Katsuyama, T., Nozawa, S., Fukuda, M.N. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of trophinin in the cycling endometrium and its association with infertility. Wang, H.Y., Xing, F.Q., Chen, S.L. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Total hip arthroplasty after failed transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy for avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Kawasaki, M., Hasegawa, Y., Sakano, S., Masui, T., Ishiguro, N. The Journal of arthroplasty. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of penicillin and spectinomycin given for urethritis and cervicitis with Neisseria gonorrhoeae: high prevalence of penicillin-resistant isolates. Kouri, Y.H., González, L., Pérez, M., Menar, R., Gadea, C.R., Kraiselburd, E., Torres-Bauza, L.J. Genitourinary medicine. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Trophinin and tastin, a novel cell adhesion molecule complex with potential involvement in embryo implantation. Fukuda, M.N., Sato, T., Nakayama, J., Klier, G., Mikami, M., Aoki, D., Nozawa, S. Genes Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Functional correlation of trophinin expression with the malignancy of testicular germ cell tumor. Hatakeyama, S., Ohyama, C., Minagawa, S., Inoue, T., Kakinuma, H., Kyan, A., Arai, Y., Suga, T., Nakayama, J., Kato, T., Habuchi, T., Fukuda, M.N. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. A cytoplasmic protein, bystin, interacts with trophinin, tastin, and cytokeratin and may be involved in trophinin-mediated cell adhesion between trophoblast and endometrial epithelial cells. Suzuki, N., Zara, J., Sato, T., Ong, E., Bakhiet, N., Oshima, R.G., Watson, K.L., Fukuda, M.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Assignment of trophoblast/endometrial epithelium cell adhesion molecule trophinin gene TRO to human chromosome bands Xp11.22-->p11.21 by in situ hybridization. Pack, S.D., Tanigami, A., Ledbetter, D.H., Sato, T., Fukuda, M.N. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of trophinin, tastin, and bystin by trophoblast and endometrial cells in human placenta. Suzuki, N., Nakayama, J., Shih, I.M., Aoki, D., Nozawa, S., Fukuda, M.N. Biol. Reprod. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Trophinin, tastin, and bystin: a complex mediating unique attachment between trophoblastic and endometrial epithelial cells at their respective apical cell membranes. Fukuda, M.N., Nozawa, S. Semin. Reprod. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of trophinin and bystin identifies distinct cell types in the germinal zones of adult rat brain. Ma, L., Yin, M., Wu, X., Wu, C., Yang, S., Sheng, J., Ni, H., Fukuda, M.N., Zhou, J. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Sequences of V kappa L subgroup light chains in Fanconi's syndrome. Light chain V region gene usage restriction and peculiarities in myeloma-associated Fanconi's syndrome. Rocca, A., Khamlichi, A.A., Touchard, G., Mougenot, B., Ronco, P., Denoroy, L., Deret, S., Preud'homme, J.L., Aucouturier, P., Cogné, M. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Toxicity of ozonated seawater to marine organisms. Jones, A.C., Gensemer, R.W., Stubblefield, W.A., Van Genderen, E., Dethloff, G.M., Cooper, W.J. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Trophoblast cell activation by trophinin ligation is implicated in human embryo implantation. Sugihara, K., Sugiyama, D., Byrne, J., Wolf, D.P., Lowitz, K.P., Kobayashi, Y., Kabir-Salmani, M., Nadano, D., Aoki, D., Nozawa, S., Nakayama, J., Mustelin, T., Ruoslahti, E., Yamaguchi, N., Fukuda, M.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. Cancer/testis antigens: structural and immunobiological properties. Kirkin, A.F., Dzhandzhugazyan, K.N., Zeuthen, J. Cancer Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Basis and new developments in the field of oxazaphosphorines. Brock, N., Hilgard, P., Peukert, M., Pohl, J., Sindermann, H. Cancer Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
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