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MeSH Review

Chorionic Villi

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Disease relevance of Chorionic Villi


High impact information on Chorionic Villi

  • Levels of annexin V, a phospholipid-binding protein with potent anticoagulant activity, are markedly reduced on placental villi from women with this syndrome [6].
  • DNA analysis can be performed in amniocytes or chorionic-villus cells to identify mutations of the dystrophic gene prenatally, but immunochemical testing for dystrophin cannot be performed because the protein is not expressed in these cells [7].
  • Prenatal diagnosis of cytochrome c oxidase deficiency by biopsy of chorionic villi [8].
  • Predictions can be made directly from chorionic villi, without previous DNA extraction, and fetal sex can be determined by amplification of sequences specific for the Y chromosome [9].
  • Distribution of beta2 microglobulin and HLA in chorionic villi of human placentae [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Chorionic Villi


Biological context of Chorionic Villi


Anatomical context of Chorionic Villi


Associations of Chorionic Villi with chemical compounds


Gene context of Chorionic Villi

  • As part of an effort to define the local effects of the placentally expressed members of the GH/Prl family of hormones on the placenta, we have identified an isoform (hGHRd3) of the growth hormone receptor expressed in the placental villi. hGHRd3 mRNA differs from the liver GHR mRNA by the deletion of a 66-base pair segment encoding exon 3 [31].
  • It was also expressed in the trophoblasts of the cytotrophoblastic shell and Langhan's layer of placental villi only in the first trimester, suggesting an autocrine role for IGF-II in early cytotrophoblastic proliferation and/or differentiation [32].
  • SDFs were transfected in vitro into cells obtained from five human fetal chorionic villi of embryos, homozygous for the SMN1 deletion, by either electroporation or microinjection [33].
  • Early placentae were also found to contain both DAF+ and DAF- chorionic villi [34].
  • Relationship between tissue damage and heme oxygenase expression in chorionic villi of term human placenta [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Chorionic Villi


  1. Increased nuchal translucency as a marker for fetal chromosomal defects. Taipale, P., Hiilesmaa, V., Salonen, R., Ylöstalo, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Early prenatal investigation of a pregnancy at risk of adenosine deaminase deficiency using chorionic villi. Aitken, D.A., Gilmore, D.H., Frew, C.A., Ferguson-Smith, M.E., Carty, M.J., Chatfield, W.R. J. Med. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Selection of maternal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants in human placenta. European Network for In Utero Transmission of HIV-1. Menu, E., Mbopi-Keou, F.X., Lagaye, S., Pissard, S., Mauclère, P., Scarlatti, G., Martin, J., Goossens, M., Chaouat, G., Barré-Sinoussi, F., M'bopi Kéou, F.X. J. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Prenatal diagnosis of nonketotic hyperglycinemia: enzymatic analysis of the glycine cleavage system in chorionic villi. Hayasaka, K., Tada, K., Fueki, N., Aikawa, J. J. Pediatr. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Clastogen-induced chromosomal breakage as a marker for first trimester prenatal diagnosis of Fanconi anemia. Auerbach, A.D., Min, Z., Ghosh, R., Pergament, E., Verlinsky, Y., Nicolas, H., Boué, J. Hum. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Pregnancy loss in the antiphospholipid-antibody syndrome--a possible thrombogenic mechanism. Rand, J.H., Wu, X.X., Andree, H.A., Lockwood, C.J., Guller, S., Scher, J., Harpel, P.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Analysis of dystrophin expression after activation of myogenesis in amniocytes, chorionic-villus cells, and fibroblasts. A new method for diagnosing Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. Sancho, S., Mongini, T., Tanji, K., Tapscott, S.J., Walker, W.F., Weintraub, H., Miller, A.D., Miranda, A.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Prenatal diagnosis of cytochrome c oxidase deficiency by biopsy of chorionic villi. Ruitenbeek, W., Sengers, R., Albani, M., Trijbels, F., Janssen, A., van Diggelen, O., Bakkeren, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. An improved method for prenatal diagnosis of genetic diseases by analysis of amplified DNA sequences. Application to hemophilia A. Kogan, S.C., Doherty, M., Gitschier, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Distribution of beta2 microglobulin and HLA in chorionic villi of human placentae. Faulk, W.P., Temple, A. Nature (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. Placental pathology in patients using cocaine: an observational study. Mooney, E.E., Boggess, K.A., Herbert, W.N., Layfield, L.J. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Fetal demise with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome confirmed by tissue sterol analysis and the absence of measurable 7-dehydrocholesterol Delta(7)-reductase activity in chorionic villi. Linck, L.M., Hayflick, S.J., Lin, D.S., Battaile, K.P., Ginat, S., Burlingame, T., Gibson, K.M., Honda, M., Honda, A., Salen, G., Tint, G.S., Connor, W.E., Steiner, R.D. Prenat. Diagn. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Prenatal diagnosis of cystinosis by quantitative measurement of cystine in chorionic villi and cultured cells. Jackson, M., Young, E. Prenat. Diagn. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Limb reduction defects in the A/J mouse strain associated with maternal blood loss. Fawcett, L.B., Buck, S.J., Brent, R.L. Teratology (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Prenatal diagnosis of Pompe's disease (type II glycogenosis) in chorionic villus biopsy using maltose as a substrate. Park, H.K., Kay, H.H., McConkie-Rosell, A., Lanman, J., Chen, Y.T. Prenat. Diagn. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. First trimester chromosomal analysis of complex structural rearrangements with RHA banding on chorionic villi. Sachs, E.S., Van Hemel, J.O., Galjaard, H., Niermeijer, M.F., Jahoda, M.G. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Complete reactivation of X chromosomes from human chorionic villi with a switch to early DNA replication. Migeon, B.R., Schmidt, M., Axelman, J., Cullen, C.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Angiogenesis during human extraembryonic development involves the spatiotemporal control of PDGF ligand and receptor gene expression. Holmgren, L., Glaser, A., Pfeifer-Ohlsson, S., Ohlsson, R. Development (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Functional insertion of the SV40 large T oncogene in cystic fibrosis intestinal epithelium. Characterization of CFI-3 cells. Chastre, E., Di Gioia, Y., Barbry, P., Simon-Bouy, B., Mornet, E., Fanen, P., Champigny, G., Emami, S., Gespach, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Retinoid receptors expression in human term placenta: involvement of RXR alpha in retinoid induced-hCG secretion. Guibourdenche, J., Alsat, E., Soncin, F., Rochette-Egly, C., Evain-Brion, D. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Cellular localization of AT1 receptor mRNA and protein in normal placenta and its reduced expression in intrauterine growth restriction. Angiotensin II stimulates the release of vasorelaxants. Li, X., Shams, M., Zhu, J., Khalig, A., Wilkes, M., Whittle, M., Barnes, N., Ahmed, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Placental dermatan sulfate: isolation, anticoagulant activity, and association with heparin cofactor II. Giri, T.K., Tollefsen, D.M. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. FMR2 expression in families with FRAXE mental retardation. Gécz, J., Oostra, B.A., Hockey, A., Carbonell, P., Turner, G., Haan, E.A., Sutherland, G.R., Mulley, J.C. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Cellular localization of CD4 in the human placenta. Implications for maternal-to-fetal transmission of HIV. Lairmore, M.D., Cuthbert, P.S., Utley, L.L., Morgan, C.J., Dezzutti, C.S., Anderson, C.L., Sedmak, D.D. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. The Fc receptor for IgG expressed in the villus endothelium of human placenta is Fc gamma RIIb2. Lyden, T.W., Robinson, J.M., Tridandapani, S., Teillaud, J.L., Garber, S.A., Osborne, J.M., Frey, J., Budde, P., Anderson, C.L. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Heparin facilitates the extraction of tissue fibronectin. Bray, B.A., Mandl, I., Turino, G.M. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  27. Vascular disruptive syndromes after exposure to misoprostol or chorionic villus sampling. Los, F.J., Brandenburg, H., Niermeijer, M.F. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Cytological events involved in protein synthesis in cellular and syncytial trophoblast of human placenta. An electron microscope autoradiographic study of [3H]leucine incorporation. Nelson, D.M., Enders, A.C., King, B.F. J. Cell Biol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  29. Kinetic analysis, isolation, and characterization of hydrophilic folate-binding proteins released from chorionic villi cultured under serum-free conditions. Verma, R.S., Antony, A.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Thromboxane and prostacyclin production by different compartments of the human placental villus. Nelson, D.M., Walsh, S.W. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1989) [Pubmed]
  31. Functional characterization of the alternatively spliced, placental human growth hormone receptor. Urbanek, M., Russell, J.E., Cooke, N.E., Liebhaber, S.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. The expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) genes in the human placenta and membranes: evidence for IGF-IGFBP interactions at the feto-maternal interface. Han, V.K., Bassett, N., Walton, J., Challis, J.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. In vitro restoration of functional SMN protein in human trophoblast cells affected by spinal muscular atrophy by small fragment homologous replacement. Sangiuolo, F., Filareto, A., Spitalieri, P., Scaldaferri, M.L., Mango, R., Bruscia, E., Citro, G., Brunetti, E., De Felici, M., Novelli, G. Hum. Gene Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Complement regulatory proteins at the feto-maternal interface during human placental development: distribution of CD59 by comparison with membrane cofactor protein (CD46) and decay accelerating factor (CD55). Holmes, C.H., Simpson, K.L., Okada, H., Okada, N., Wainwright, S.D., Purcell, D.F., Houlihan, J.M. Eur. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Relationship between tissue damage and heme oxygenase expression in chorionic villi of term human placenta. Lash, G.E., McLaughlin, B.E., MacDonald-Goodfellow, S.K., Smith, G.N., Brien, J.F., Marks, G.S., Nakatsu, K., Graham, C.H. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Adrenomedullin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in the placentae of normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. Gratton, R.J., Gluszynski, M., Mazzuca, D.M., Nygard, K., Han, V.K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. The differential expression of hepatocyte growth factor and met in human placenta. Kauma, S., Hayes, N., Weatherford, S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Prenatal diagnosis of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis by direct gene sequencing. Rothnagel, J.A., Longley, M.A., Holder, R.A., Küster, W., Roop, D.R. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  39. Long dwell-time exposure of human chorionic villi to transvaginal ultrasound in the first trimester of pregnancy induces activation of caspase-3 and cytochrome C release. Zhang, J., Zhou, F., Song, Y., Ying, W., Zhang, Y. Biol. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  40. Localization of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and colocalization of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A messenger ribonucleic acid and eosinophil granule major basic protein messenger ribonucleic acid in placenta. Bonno, M., Oxvig, C., Kephart, G.M., Wagner, J.M., Kristensen, T., Sottrup-Jensen, L., Gleich, G.J. Lab. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
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