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Gene Review

ZFX  -  zinc finger protein, X-linked

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ZNF926, Zinc finger X-chromosomal protein
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Disease relevance of ZFX


High impact information on ZFX

  • We report the simultaneous analysis of single cells at five commonly deleted dystrophin exons and at the ZFX/ZFY loci [5].
  • ZFX has a gene structure similar to ZFY, the putative human sex determinant, and escapes X inactivation [6].
  • Transcription analysis of human-rodent hybrid cell lines containing "inactive" human X chromosomes suggests that ZFX escapes X inactivation [6].
  • ZFY and ZFX diverged from a common ancestral gene, as evidenced by similarities in their intron/exon organization and exon DNA sequences [6].
  • Here, we report that ZFX encodes a protein composed of a highly acidic amino-terminal domain, a basic putative nuclear-localization signal, and a carboxy-terminal zinc-finger domain [7].

Biological context of ZFX


Anatomical context of ZFX

  • ZFY and ZFX are transcribed in a wide variety of XY and (in the case of ZFX) XX cell lines [6].
  • Maternal transcripts for G6PD, ADA, and ZFX were detected in all oocytes and embryos and at all stages [11].
  • In contrast, the ZFX gene is expressed as a 5-kb transcript in the testis and as 6.7- and 8-kb transcripts in both ovarian and somatic tissues [12].
  • None of the sample blanks showed any PCR product, all 90 of the karyotypically XY cells were correctly genotyped as ZFX/ZFY, all 83 of the 84 XX cells that amplified were correctly genotyped as ZFX only, and analyses of all same-embryo blastomeres were completely concordant (100% specificity) [13].
  • Coamplification of the ZFX and ZFY genes for sex identification in preimplantation embryos [14].

Other interactions of ZFX


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ZFX


  1. On the origin of deletions and point mutations in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: most deletions arise in oogenesis and most point mutations result from events in spermatogenesis. Grimm, T., Meng, G., Liechti-Gallati, S., Bettecken, T., Müller, C.R., Müller, B. J. Med. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. ZFY gene expression and retention in human prostate adenocarcinoma. Tricoli, J.V., Bracken, R.B. Genes Chromosomes Cancer (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. X-chromosome inactivation may explain the difference in viability of XO humans and mice. Ashworth, A., Rastan, S., Lovell-Badge, R., Kay, G. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. ZFX transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR is cell specific and depends on core enhancer and TATA box sequences. Gazin, C. Nucleic Acids Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Preimplantation single cell analyses of dystrophin gene deletions using whole genome amplification. Kristjansson, K., Chong, S.S., Van den Veyver, I.B., Subramanian, S., Snabes, M.C., Hughes, M.R. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. ZFX has a gene structure similar to ZFY, the putative human sex determinant, and escapes X inactivation. Schneider-Gädicke, A., Beer-Romero, P., Brown, L.G., Nussbaum, R., Page, D.C. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Putative transcription activator with alternative isoforms encoded by human ZFX gene. Schneider-Gädicke, A., Beer-Romero, P., Brown, L.G., Mardon, G., Luoh, S.W., Page, D.C. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Comparison of human ZFY and ZFX transcripts. Palmer, M.S., Berta, P., Sinclair, A.H., Pym, B., Goodfellow, P.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Chromosomal localization of ZFX--a human gene that escapes X inactivation--and its murine homologs. Page, D.C., Disteche, C.M., Simpson, E.M., de la Chapelle, A., Andersson, M., Alitalo, T., Brown, L.G., Green, P., Akots, G. Genomics (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Regional assignments of the zinc finger Y-linked gene (ZFY) and related sequences on human and mouse chromosomes. Leung, W.Y., Lindgren, V., Lau, Y.F., Yang-Feng, Y.L. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Paternal transcripts for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and adenosine deaminase are first detectable in the human preimplantation embryo at the three- to four-cell stage. Taylor, D.M., Ray, P.F., Ao, A., Winston, R.M., Handyside, A.H. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. The putative testis-determining factor and related genes are expressed as discrete-sized transcripts in adult gonadal and somatic tissues. Lau, Y.F., Chan, K.M. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Preimplantation prevention of X-linked disease: reliable and rapid sex determination of single human cells by restriction analysis of simultaneously amplified ZFX and ZFY sequences. Chong, S.S., Kristjansson, K., Cota, J., Handyside, A.H., Hughes, M.R. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Coamplification of the ZFX and ZFY genes for sex identification in preimplantation embryos. Kuo, P.L., Liu, C.C., Chang, J.C., Kuo, T.C., Hsu, C.C., Huang, K.E. J. Formos. Med. Assoc. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Sequences homologous to ZFY, a candidate human sex-determining gene, are autosomal in marsupials. Sinclair, A.H., Foster, J.W., Spencer, J.A., Page, D.C., Palmer, M., Goodfellow, P.N., Graves, J.A. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Physical mapping of loci in the distal half of the short arm of the human X chromosome: implications for the spreading of X-chromosome inactivation. Wang, J.C., Passage, M.B., Ellison, J., Becker, M.A., Yen, P.H., Shapiro, L.J., Mohandas, T.K. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. An X-linked zinc finger gene mapping to Xq21.1-q21.3 closely related to ZFX and ZFY: possible origins from a common ancestral gene. Lloyd, S.L., Sargent, C.A., Chalmers, J., Lim, E., Habeebu, S.S., Affara, N.A. Nucleic Acids Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of a duplication Xp in a male: further delineation of a possible sex influencing region on the X chromosome. Rao, P.N., Klinepeter, K., Stewart, W., Hayworth, R., Grubs, R., Pettenati, M.J. Hum. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Mapping the human ZFX locus to Xp21.3 by in situ hybridization. Müller, G., Schempp, W. Hum. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Sex diagnosis of equine preimplantation embryos using the polymerase chain reaction. Peippo, J., Huhtinen, M., Kotilainen, T. Theriogenology (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Sexing of human and other primate DNA. Wilson, J.F., Erlandsson, R. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
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