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Gene Review

ATG1  -  Atg1p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: APG1, AUT3, Autophagy protein 3, Autophagy-related protein 1, CVT10, ...
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Disease relevance of ATG1


High impact information on ATG1

  • In this article, we summarize advances in the characterization of genes that are necessary for the transport and delivery of selective and nonselective cargoes to the lysosome or vacuole by autophagy-related processes, with emphasis on peroxisome turnover by micropexophagy [2].
  • Peroxisome turnover by micropexophagy: an autophagy-related process [2].
  • The recent discovery of intermediates and genes in peroxisome turnover by selective autophagy-related processes (pexophagy) opens the door to understanding peroxisome turnover and homeostasis [2].
  • Cvt9 oligomers peripherally associate with a novel, perivacuolar membrane compartment and interact with Apg1, a Ser/Thr kinase essential for both the Cvt pathway and autophagy [3].
  • This Apg1-Apg13 association is required for autophagy, but not for the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway, another vesicular transport mechanism in which factors essential for autophagy (Apg proteins) are also employed under vegetative growth conditions [4].

Biological context of ATG1

  • Primer extension experiments show multiple transcription initiation sites upstream of ATG1 and between ATG1 and ATG2 [5].
  • Of the single codon changes, mutation of the first ATG (ATG1) resulted in the largest increase of the reporter gene PIS1(promoter)-lacZ expression [6].
  • Induction of autophagy in pho85 mutants entering the stationary phase was exaggerated compared to the level in wild-type cells, but was blocked in apg1 pho85 mutants [7].
  • By using the drastically reduced sporulation frequency of homozygous aut3-1 diploid cells, the AUT3 gene was cloned by complementation [8].
  • Also, secretion of invertase, endocytic uptake of Lucifer Yellow, and vacuolar protein sorting appear wild type like in aut3-deficient cells, suggesting autophagocytosis as a novel route for the transport of proteins from the cytosol to the vacuole [8].

Anatomical context of ATG1


Associations of ATG1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of ATG1

  • Vac8p and Apg13p may be part of a larger protein complex that includes Apg1p and additional interacting proteins [16].

Regulatory relationships of ATG1

  • Taken together, these results indicate that Atg17-Atg13 complex formation plays an important role in normal autophagosome formation via binding to and activating the Atg1 kinase [17].
  • In the course of searching for genes that genetically interact with APG1, we found that overexpression of APG1 under control of the GAL1 promoter suppressed the autophagy-defective phenotype of apg13-1 mutant [18].

Other interactions of ATG1

  • A genetic screen revealed that two genes involved in autophagy, APG1 and APG13, may be regulated by SNF1 [7].
  • Subcellular fractionation experiments indicate that Apg13p and a fraction of Apg1p are membrane-associated [16].
  • In this study, we characterize mutations in the putative Dictyostelium discoideum orthologues of budding yeast genes that are involved in one of each of these functions, ATG1, ATG6, and ATG8 [19].
  • Two-hybrid analyses and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that Atg17 physically associates with Atg1-Atg13 complex, and this binding was enhanced under starvation conditions [17].
  • Atg9 trafficking in autophagy-related pathways [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ATG1

  • Some of the PCR products contained mutations in ATG1 and/or ATG2 [21].
  • The discovery of a Cvt pathway in P. pastoris makes it an excellent model system for the dissection of autophagy-related pathways in a single organism and for the discovery of new Cvt pathway components [22].


  1. Induction of autophagy by second-fermentation yeasts during elaboration of sparkling wines. Cebollero, E., Gonzalez, R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Peroxisome turnover by micropexophagy: an autophagy-related process. Farré, J.C., Subramani, S. Trends Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Cvt9/Gsa9 functions in sequestering selective cytosolic cargo destined for the vacuole. Kim, J., Kamada, Y., Stromhaug, P.E., Guan, J., Hefner-Gravink, A., Baba, M., Scott, S.V., Ohsumi, Y., Dunn, W.A., Klionsky, D.J. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Tor-mediated induction of autophagy via an Apg1 protein kinase complex. Kamada, Y., Funakoshi, T., Shintani, T., Nagano, K., Ohsumi, M., Ohsumi, Y. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Interplay of heterogeneous transcriptional start sites and translational selection of AUGs dictate the production of mitochondrial and cytosolic/nuclear tRNA nucleotidyltransferase from the same gene in yeast. Wolfe, C.L., Lou, Y.C., Hopper, A.K., Martin, N.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PIS1 gene is modulated by multiple ATGs in the promoter. Iverson, S., Sonnemann, K., Reddick, A., McDonough, V. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Antagonistic controls of autophagy and glycogen accumulation by Snf1p, the yeast homolog of AMP-activated protein kinase, and the cyclin-dependent kinase Pho85p. Wang, Z., Wilson, W.A., Fujino, M.A., Roach, P.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. AUT3, a serine/threonine kinase gene, is essential for autophagocytosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Straub, M., Bredschneider, M., Thumm, M. J. Bacteriol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. A Peroxisomal Lon Protease and Peroxisome Degradation by Autophagy Play Key Roles in Vitality of Hansenula polymorpha Cells. Aksam, E.B., Koek, A., Kiel, J.A., Jourdan, S., Veenhuis, M., van der Klei, I.J. Autophagy (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Endothelial nitric-oxide synthase antisense (NOS3AS) gene encodes an autophagy-related protein (APG9-like2) highly expressed in trophoblast. Yamada, T., Carson, A.R., Caniggia, I., Umebayashi, K., Yoshimori, T., Nakabayashi, K., Scherer, S.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. The regulation of autophagy in eukaryotic cells: do all roads pass through atg1? Stephan, J.S., Herman, P.K. Autophagy. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Yeast as a tool to study Bax/mitochondrial interactions in cell death. Priault, M., Camougrand, N., Kinnally, K.W., Vallette, F.M., Manon, S. FEMS Yeast Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. The autophagy-related kinase UNC-51 and its binding partner UNC-14 regulate the subcellular localization of the Netrin receptor UNC-5 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Ogura, K., Goshima, Y. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Autophagy-related pathways and specific role of sterol glucoside in yeasts. Nazarko, T.Y., Farré, J.C., Polupanov, A.S., Sibirny, A.A., Subramani, S. Autophagy (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. Mitophagy: The Life-or-Death Dichotomy Includes Yeast. Abeliovich, H. Autophagy (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Apg13p and Vac8p are part of a complex of phosphoproteins that are required for cytoplasm to vacuole targeting. Scott, S.V., Nice, D.C., Nau, J.J., Weisman, L.S., Kamada, Y., Keizer-Gunnink, I., Funakoshi, T., Veenhuis, M., Ohsumi, Y., Klionsky, D.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Atg17 functions in cooperation with Atg1 and Atg13 in yeast autophagy. Kabeya, Y., Kamada, Y., Baba, M., Takikawa, H., Sasaki, M., Ohsumi, Y. Mol. Biol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Analyses of APG13 gene involved in autophagy in yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Funakoshi, T., Matsuura, A., Noda, T., Ohsumi, Y. Gene (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Dictyostelium macroautophagy mutants vary in the severity of their developmental defects. Otto, G.P., Wu, M.Y., Kazgan, N., Anderson, O.R., Kessin, R.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Atg9 trafficking in autophagy-related pathways. He, C., Klionsky, D.J. Autophagy (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. Primary structure and regulation of a glucoamylase-encoding gene (STA2) in Saccharomyces diastaticus. Lambrechts, M.G., Pretorius, I.S., Sollitti, P., Marmur, J. Gene (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. A Cytoplasm to Vacuole Targeting Pathway in P. pastoris. Farré, J.C., Vidal, J., Subramani, S. Autophagy (2007) [Pubmed]
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