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Gene Review

RNA1  -  Rna1p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Protein involved in RNA production/processing, Ran GTPase-activating protein 1, YM9959.17C, YMR235C
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Disease relevance of RNA1

  • The nodavirus genome is composed of two positive-sense RNA segments: RNA1 encodes the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and RNA2 encodes the capsid protein precursor [1].
  • Five such processing genes from yeast, viz., RNA1 through RNA5, cloned in plasmid pBR322 were transformed in Escherichia coli strain LE392 [2].
  • Full-length cDNA clones corresponding to the RNA1 and RNA2 of the Polish isolate MJ of Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, genus Nepovirus) were obtained using a direct recombination strategy in yeast, and their complete nucleotide sequences were established [3].
  • Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Peanut stunt virus (PSV) each have genomes consisting of three single-stranded RNA molecules: RNA 1, 2 and 3 [4].

High impact information on RNA1

  • These pre-tRNAs are like those which accumulate in the yeast mutant ts 136 (rna1) in that they have transcribed intervening sequences [5].
  • We demonstrate that prp20 and rna1 mutants are very similar, if not identical, with respect to each of these biochemical phenotypes [6].
  • Using a synthetic lethal screen with the rna1-1 strain, we have identified a genetic interaction between Rna1p, a GTPase activating protein required for nuclear transport, and yeast importin-beta, a component of the nuclear localization signal receptor [7].
  • These findings suggest a role for the Rna1p in trafficking of proteins across the nuclear membrane [8].
  • The yeast RNA1 gene product necessary for RNA processing is located in the cytosol and apparently excluded from the nucleus [9].

Biological context of RNA1

  • We also show that RanBP1 interacts with the mammalian homolog of yeast protein RNA1, a protein involved in RNA transport and processing [10].
  • Yeast colonies were selected from cells expressing NoV RNA1, and RNA2 replicons that encoded yeast nutritional markers, from plasmids [1].
  • We cloned the MRE11 gene and found that it encodes a 643-amino acid protein with a highly acidic region containing a heptad repeat of Asp at its C-terminus and is located downstream of YMR44 near the RNA1 locus on the right arm of chromosome XIII [11].
  • The yeast RNA1 gene is required for RNA processing and nuclear transport of RNA [9].
  • The RNA1 gene product is believed to be involved in RNA metabolism due to the phenotype of a single conditionally lethal, temperature-sensitive allele, rna1-1 [12].

Anatomical context of RNA1

  • The yeast RNA1 gene encodes a cytosolic protein that affects pre-tRNA splicing, pre-rRNA processing, the production of mRNA, and the export of RNA from the nucleus to the cytosol [13].
  • As determined by indirect immunofluorescence localization and organelle fractionation, the RNA1 antigen is found exclusively or primarily in the cytoplasm [9].
  • To learn the precise nuclear locations of the Rna1 proteins, we studied their subcellular distributions in HeLa cells [14].
  • In this study, reassortants containing PSV RNA 1 and CMV RNA 2 together with RNA 3 of CMV or PSV were shown to be able to replicate their genomic RNA, but not to transcribe subgenomic RNA 4 in tobacco protoplasts [4].
  • The entry of newly labeled ribosomal subunits and mRNA into polysomes was examined in the yeast mutant rna1 [15].

Associations of RNA1 with chemical compounds

  • A functional homologue of the RNA1 gene product in Schizosaccharomyces pombe: purification, biochemical characterization, and identification of a leucine-rich repeat motif [16].
  • The Ran-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor RCC1 and its yeast homologues are restricted to the nucleus, while Rna1p is reported to be localized to the cytoplasm [17].
  • Termination of induction by inducer removal, addition of the ribonucleic acid synthesis inhibitor lomofungin, or resuspension of a culture of organisms containing temperature-sensitive rna1 gene products in a medium at 35 degrees C resulted in loss of ability for continued arginase synthesis with half-lives of 5.5, 3.8, and 4.5 min, respectively [18].
  • Analysis of the position of glutamine codons on RNA 1 shows a correlation between the positions of the CAA codons and the halting places of the ribosomes [19].

Physical interactions of RNA1


Regulatory relationships of RNA1

  • Prp20p and Rna1p are GDP/GTP exchanging and GTPase-activating factors of Gsp1p, respectively, and their mutations, prp20-1 and rna1-1, can both be suppressed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae gtr1-11 [21].
  • In addition, replication of an RNA2 derivative was dependent on RNA1 templates capable of forming the long-distance interaction that controls RNA3 production [22].
  • In yeast Rna1p is the GTPase activating protein for Ran (RanGAP) and Prp20p is the Ran GDP/GTP exchange factor (GEF) [23].

Other interactions of RNA1

  • Because LOS1 is nonessential, tRNA export in vertebrate and yeast cells likely involves factors in addition to exportin-t. Mutation of RNA1, which encodes RanGAP, causes nuclear accumulation of tRNAs and poly(A) RNA [24].
  • It is believed that in order to complete a full GDP/GTP cycle, Gsp1p has to shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, where its GTPase Activating Protein (GAP) Rna1p is located [25].
  • This suppression by BUD5 can be reversed by simultaneous overexpression of RNA1, and is not Rsr1p-dependent, nor allele-specific [25].
  • Interestingly, SRN1 is not a negative regulator of RNA1 at the transcriptional, translational, or protein stability level [13].
  • A small subgenomic RNA3, which encodes nonstructural proteins B1 and B2, is transcribed from RNA1 during RNA replication [1].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RNA1


  1. Nodamura virus RNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: heterologous gene expression allows replication-dependent colony formation. Price, B.D., Eckerle, L.D., Ball, L.A., Johnson, K.L. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Neurospora crassa nuclear genome contains analogy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes for ribosomal RNA processing. Dutta, S.K., Verma, M., Verma, M. Curr. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Cloning and sequencing of full-length cDNAs of RNA1 and RNA2 of a Tomato black ring virus isolate from Poland. Jończyk, M., Le Gall, O., Pałucha, A., Borodynko, N., Pospieszny, H. Arch. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Interaction of replicase components between Cucumber mosaic virus and Peanut stunt virus. Suzuki, M., Yoshida, M., Yoshinuma, T., Hibi, T. J. Gen. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Processing of intervening sequences: a new yeast mutant which fails to excise intervening sequences from precursor tRNAs. Hopper, A.K., Schultz, L.D., Shapiro, R.A. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. Defects in mRNA 3'-end formation, transcription initiation, and mRNA transport associated with the yeast mutation prp20: possible coupling of mRNA processing and chromatin structure. Forrester, W., Stutz, F., Rosbash, M., Wickens, M. Genes Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Dynamic localization of the nuclear import receptor and its interactions with transport factors. Koepp, D.M., Wong, D.H., Corbett, A.H., Silver, P.A. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Rna1p, a Ran/TC4 GTPase activating protein, is required for nuclear import. Corbett, A.H., Koepp, D.M., Schlenstedt, G., Lee, M.S., Hopper, A.K., Silver, P.A. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. The yeast RNA1 gene product necessary for RNA processing is located in the cytosol and apparently excluded from the nucleus. Hopper, A.K., Traglia, H.M., Dunst, R.W. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Separate domains of the Ran GTPase interact with different factors to regulate nuclear protein import and RNA processing. Ren, M., Villamarin, A., Shih, A., Coutavas, E., Moore, M.S., LoCurcio, M., Clarke, V., Oppenheim, J.D., D'Eustachio, P., Rush, M.G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Interaction of Mre11 and Rad50: two proteins required for DNA repair and meiosis-specific double-strand break formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Johzuka, K., Ogawa, H. Genetics (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Characterization of an essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene related to RNA processing: cloning of RNA1 and generation of a new allele with a novel phenotype. Atkinson, N.S., Dunst, R.W., Hopper, A.K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. SRN1, a yeast gene involved in RNA processing, is identical to HEX2/REG1, a negative regulator in glucose repression. Tung, K.S., Norbeck, L.L., Nolan, S.L., Atkinson, N.S., Hopper, A.K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Nucleus-associated pools of Rna1p, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ran/TC4 GTPse activating protein involved in nucleus/cytosol transit. Traglia, H.M., O'Connor, J.P., Tung, K.S., Dallabrida, S., Shen, W.C., Hopper, A.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Yeast mutant, rna 1, affects the entry into polysomes of ribosomal RNA as well as messenger RNA. Petersen, N.S., Nierlich, D.P. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. A functional homologue of the RNA1 gene product in Schizosaccharomyces pombe: purification, biochemical characterization, and identification of a leucine-rich repeat motif. Melchior, F., Weber, K., Gerke, V. Mol. Biol. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Human RanGTPase-activating protein RanGAP1 is a homologue of yeast Rna1p involved in mRNA processing and transport. Bischoff, F.R., Krebber, H., Kempf, T., Hermes, I., Ponstingl, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Molecular events associated with induction of arginase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bossinger, J., Cooper, T.G. J. Bacteriol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  19. Ribosomes are stalled during in vitro translation of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1. Lindhout, P., Neeleman, L., Van Tol, H., Van Vloten-Doting, L. Eur. J. Biochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Ran-binding protein 1 (RanBP1) forms a ternary complex with Ran and karyopherin beta and reduces Ran GTPase-activating protein (RanGAP) inhibition by karyopherin beta. Lounsbury, K.M., Macara, I.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Saccharomyces cerevisiae putative G protein, Gtr1p, which forms complexes with itself and a novel protein designated as Gtr2p, negatively regulates the Ran/Gsp1p G protein cycle through Gtr2p. Nakashima, N., Noguchi, E., Nishimoto, T. Genetics (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Long-distance base pairing in flock house virus RNA1 regulates subgenomic RNA3 synthesis and RNA2 replication. Lindenbach, B.D., Sgro, J.Y., Ahlquist, P. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Antagonistic effects of NES and NLS motifs determine S. cerevisiae Rna1p subcellular distribution. Feng, W., Benko, A.L., Lee, J.H., Stanford, D.R., Hopper, A.K. J. Cell. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. tRNA nuclear export in saccharomyces cerevisiae: in situ hybridization analysis. Sarkar, S., Hopper, A.K. Mol. Biol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Overexpression of Bud5p can suppress mutations in the Gsp1p guanine nucleotide exchange factor Prp20p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Clément, M., Lavallée, F., Barbès-Morin, G., de Repentigny, L., Belhumeur, P. Mol. Genet. Genomics (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. The yeast RNA1 protein, necessary for RNA processing, is homologous to the human ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor (RAI). Schneider, R., Schweiger, M. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. PET111, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear gene required for translation of the mitochondrial mRNA encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit II. Poutre, C.G., Fox, T.D. Genetics (1987) [Pubmed]
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