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Gene Review

maeB  -  malic enzyme: putative...

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK2458, JW2447, ypfF
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Disease relevance of maeB


High impact information on maeB

  • Involvement of single residue tryptophan 548 in the quaternary structural stability of pigeon cytosolic malic enzyme [6].
  • A single open reading frame of 1434 base pairs encoding 478 amino acids was concluded to be that for the malic enzyme gene because the amino acid composition of the enzyme and the sequence of 16 amino acids from the amino terminus of the enzyme agreed well with those deduced from this open reading frame [3].
  • An NADP-preferring malic enzyme ((S)-malate:NADP oxidoreductase (oxalacetate-decarboxylating) EC with a specific activity of 36.6 units per mg of protein at 60 degrees C and an isoelectric point of 5.1 was purified to homogeneity from the thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus, strain MT-4 [7].
  • In addition to the NAD(P)-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate, S. solfataricus malic enzyme was able to catalyze the decarboxylation of oxalacetate [7].
  • A number of differences in the kinetic and physical properties of the Escherichia coli nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) dependent malic enzyme have been found, depending upon whether Mg2+ or Mn2+ served to fulfill the divalent cation requirement [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of maeB


Biological context of maeB


Associations of maeB with chemical compounds

  • The sedimentation coefficient (S(0)20, W) was 13.8S, and the molecular activity was 44,700 min-1 at 30 degrees C. The amino acid composition of the enzyme was determined, and the results were compared with those of NAD-linked malic enzyme from the same organism and those of pigeon liver NADP-linked malic enzyme [2].
  • The measurement of enzyme activities implied a significant change in metabolism, when alternative pathways such as the Entner-Doudoroff pathway (EDP) and the malic enzyme pathway were activated in the gnd mutant grown on glucose [15].
  • The NAD(P)(+) specific malic enzyme [EC] exhibits positive co-operativity with respect to malate, but Michaelis-Menten type behavior with respect to the co-factors NAD(+) or NADP(+) [11].
  • This latter class of revertants apparently synthesized oxalacetate from malate via the sequential actions of the NAD-linked malic enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase [16].
  • An extreme case is the four putative malic enzyme genes maeA, malS, ytsJ, and mleA. maeA was demonstrated to encode malic enzyme activity, to be inducible by malate, but also to be dispensable for growth on malate [5].

Regulatory relationships of maeB

  • It was found that flux through phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase and malic enzyme were up-regulated in the pykF- mutant as compared with the wild type, and acetate formation was significantly reduced in the mutant [17].

Other interactions of maeB


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of maeB


  1. Chimeric structure of the NAD(P)+- and NADP+-dependent malic enzymes of Rhizobium (Sinorhizobium) meliloti. Mitsch, M.J., Voegele, R.T., Cowie, A., Osteras, M., Finan, T.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Studies on regulatory functions of malic enzymes. VI. Purification and molecular properties of NADP-linked malic enzyme from Escherichia coli W. Iwakura, M., Hattori, J., Arita, Y., Tokushige, M., Katsuki, H. J. Biochem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  3. Structure and properties of malic enzyme from Bacillus stearothermophilus. Kobayashi, K., Doi, S., Negoro, S., Urabe, I., Okada, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Malic Enzyme Cofactor and Domain Requirements for Symbiotic N2 Fixation by Sinorhizobium meliloti. Mitsch, M.J., Cowie, A., Finan, T.M. J. Bacteriol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. YtsJ has the major physiological role of the four paralogous malic enzyme isoforms in Bacillus subtilis. Lerondel, G., Doan, T., Zamboni, N., Sauer, U., Aymerich, S. J. Bacteriol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Involvement of single residue tryptophan 548 in the quaternary structural stability of pigeon cytosolic malic enzyme. Chang, H.C., Chang, G.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Malic enzyme from archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus. Purification, structure, and kinetic properties. Bartolucci, S., Rella, R., Guagliardi, A., Raia, C.A., Gambacorta, A., De Rosa, M., Rossi, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of metal cofactors in enzyme regulation. Differences in the regulatory properties of the Escherichia coli nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate specific malic enzyme, depending on whether magnesium ion or manganese ion serves as divalent cation. Brown, D.A., Cook, R.A. Biochemistry (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Role of metal cofactors in enzyme regulation. Differences in the regulatory properties of the Escherichia coli nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide specific malic enzyme depending on whether Mg2+ or Mn2+ serves as divalent cation. Milne, J.A., Cook, R.A. Biochemistry (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. Production of succinic acid through overexpression of NAD(+)-dependent malic enzyme in an Escherichia coli mutant. Stols, L., Donnelly, M.I. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of two members of a novel malic enzyme class. Voegele, R.T., Mitsch, M.J., Finan, T.M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparison of partial malolactic enzyme gene sequences for phylogenetic analysis of some lactic acid bacteria species and relationships with the malic enzyme. Groisillier, A., Lonvaud-Funel, A. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Cloning and expression of pigeon liver cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent malic enzyme cDNA and some of its abortive mutants. Chou, W.Y., Huang, S.M., Liu, Y.H., Chang, G.G. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Importance of redox balance on the production of succinic acid by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli. Hong, S.H., Lee, S.Y. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Global metabolic response of Escherichia coli to gnd or zwf gene-knockout, based on 13C-labeling experiments and the measurement of enzyme activities. Zhao, J., Baba, T., Mori, H., Shimizu, K. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Properties of mutants of Escherichia coli lacking malic dehydrogenase and their revertants. Hansen, E.J., Juni, E. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  17. Metabolic flux analysis of pykF gene knockout Escherichia coli based on 13C-labeling experiments together with measurements of enzyme activities and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Al Zaid Siddiquee, K., Arauzo-Bravo, M.J., Shimizu, K. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Indole-3-acetic acid regulates the central metabolic pathways in Escherichia coli. Bianco, C., Imperlini, E., Calogero, R., Senatore, B., Pucci, P., Defez, R. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction analysis of malic enzyme from pigeon liver. Tsai, L.C., Kuo, C.C., Chou, W.Y., Chang, G.G., Yuan, H.S. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (1999) [Pubmed]
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