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Gene Review

phy  -  phytochrome

Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

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Disease relevance of phy


High impact information on phy

  • In addition to identifying a small region of the apoprotein critical for maintaining phytochrome's native spectroscopic properties, our studies revealed a tyrosine-to-histidine mutation that transformed phytochrome into an intensely red fluorescent biliprotein [6].
  • Interestingly, whereas the C-terminal region of the TaxD1 polypeptide is similar to the signaling domain of enteric methyl-accepting chemoreceptor proteins, the N terminus has two domains resembling chromophore-binding domains of phytochrome, a photoreceptor in plants [7].
  • Phycocyanobilin and similar tetrapyrroles are covalently attached within seconds, an autocatalytic process followed by slow conformational changes culminating in red-absorbing phytochrome formation [8].
  • The complete sequence of the Synechocystis chromosome has revealed a phytochrome-like sequence that yielded an authentic phytochrome when overexpressed in Escherichia coli [8].
  • Precise structural information regarding the chromophore binding pocket is essential for an understanding of photochromicity and photoconversion in phytochrome photoreceptors [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of phy


Biological context of phy


Associations of phy with chemical compounds

  • The CD spectra of the PCB adduct in the 250-800 nm range show that the chromophore geometries in P(r) and P(fr) are similar to those in plant phytochrome [10].
  • Both RRs are members of phytochrome-associated, light-sensing two-component signal transduction pathways, based on histidine kinase-mediated receptor autophosphorylation and phosphorelay to a RR [12].
  • Site-directed mutagenesis of highly conserved charged residues within bilin lyase domains of nearly all members of the extended phytochrome superfamily has identified a glutamate residue critical for bilin binding [15].
  • An Arabidopsis thaliana hy1 mutant was previously shown to be deficient in phytochrome responses, and these responses were regained when the plants were administered biliverdin IXalpha [16].

Physical interactions of phy


Other interactions of phy

  • To test this hypothesis, portions of locus sll0821, a novel phytochrome-related gene from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 that encodes a large protein with two potential bilin binding sites, were amplified, and the recombinant apoproteins were tested for bilin binding and phytochrome photoactivity [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of phy


  1. A cyanobacterial phytochrome two-component light sensory system. Yeh, K.C., Wu, S.H., Murphy, J.T., Lagarias, J.C. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Chromophore-apoprotein interactions in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 phytochrome Cph1. Park, C.M., Shim, J.Y., Yang, S.S., Kang, J.G., Kim, J.I., Luka, Z., Song, P.S. Biochemistry (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Ultrafast dynamics of phytochrome from the cyanobacterium synechocystis, reconstituted with phycocyanobilin and phycoerythrobilin. Heyne, K., Herbst, J., Stehlik, D., Esteban, B., Lamparter, T., Hughes, J., Diller, R. Biophys. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. A new appraisal of the prokaryotic origin of eukaryotic phytochromes. Herdman, M., Coursin, T., Rippka, R., Houmard, J., Tandeau de Marsac, N. J. Mol. Evol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Raman spectroscopic and light-induced kinetic characterization of a recombinant phytochrome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis. Remberg, A., Lindner, I., Lamparter, T., Hughes, J., Kneip, C., Hildebrandt, P., Braslavsky, S.E., Gärtner, W., Schaffner, K. Biochemistry (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Harnessing phytochrome's glowing potential. Fischer, A.J., Lagarias, J.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Light regulation of type IV pilus-dependent motility by chemosensor-like elements in Synechocystis PCC6803. Bhaya, D., Takahashi, A., Grossman, A.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization of recombinant phytochrome from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis. Lamparter, T., Mittmann, F., Gärtner, W., Börner, T., Hartmann, E., Hughes, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Heteronuclear solution-state NMR studies of the chromophore in cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1. Strauss, H.M., Hughes, J., Schmieder, P. Biochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Mechanism of Cph1 phytochrome assembly from stopped-flow kinetics and circular dichroism. Borucki, B., Otto, H., Rottwinkel, G., Hughes, J., Heyn, M.P., Lamparter, T. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Disruption of a Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 gene with partial similarity to phytochrome genes alters growth under changing light qualities. Wilde, A., Churin, Y., Schubert, H., Börner, T. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Crystal structures of two cyanobacterial response regulators in apo- and phosphorylated form reveal a novel dimerization motif of phytochrome-associated response regulators. Benda, C., Scheufler, C., Tandeau de Marsac, N., Gärtner, W. Biophys. J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Light-induced proton release and proton uptake reactions in the cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1. van Thor, J.J., Borucki, B., Crielaard, W., Otto, H., Lamparter, T., Hughes, J., Hellingwerf, K.J., Heyn, M.P. Biochemistry (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Dimerization and inter-chromophore distance of Cph1 phytochrome from Synechocystis, as monitored by fluorescence homo and hetero energy transfer. Otto, H., Lamparter, T., Borucki, B., Hughes, J., Heyn, M.P. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Defining the bilin lyase domain: lessons from the extended phytochrome superfamily. Wu, S.H., Lagarias, J.C. Biochemistry (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Phytobilin biosynthesis: the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 heme oxygenase-encoding ho1 gene complements a phytochrome-deficient Arabidopsis thalianna hy1 mutant. Willows, R.D., Mayer, S.M., Foulk, M.S., DeLong, A., Hanson, K., Chory, J., Beale, S.I. Plant Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Novel putative photoreceptor and regulatory genes Required for the positive phototactic movement of the unicellular motile cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Yoshihara, S., Suzuki, F., Fujita, H., Geng, X.X., Ikeuchi, M. Plant Cell Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of response regulator for cyanobacterial phytochrome, Rcp1. Im, Y.J., Park, C.M., Kim, J.I., Yang, S.S., Kang, J.G., Rho, S.H., Kim, J.I., Song, W.K., Song, P.S., Eom, S.H. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Assignments of the Pfr-Pr FTIR difference spectrum of cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1 using 15N and 13C isotopically labeled phycocyanobilin chromophore. van Thor, J.J., Fisher, N., Rich, P.R. The journal of physical chemistry. B, Condensed matter, materials, surfaces, interfaces & biophysical. (2005) [Pubmed]
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