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Disease relevance of Ehrlichiosis


High impact information on Ehrlichiosis


Chemical compound and disease context of Ehrlichiosis

  • These observations are consistent with the finding that human ehrlichiosis appears to respond to tetracycline therapy, which has been the therapy of first choice [11].
  • Taken together, these results suggest that human ehrlichiosis agents became cholesterol dependent due to the loss of these genes [4].
  • Human ehrlichiosis appears to be tickborne and is prevalent primarily in the southern Atlantic and south-central states [12].
  • Conserved serine-rich motifs identified in the repeat units of P120 and P140 were also found in the repeat units of the human granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis agent 130-kDa protein and of the fimbria-associated adhesin protein Fap1 of Streptococcus parasanguis [13].
  • Therapeutic effect of doxycycline in experimental subclinical canine monocytic ehrlichiosis: evaluation of a 6-week course [14].

Biological context of Ehrlichiosis


Anatomical context of Ehrlichiosis

  • Second, severe and fatal murine ehrlichiosis in immunocompetent animals, which mimics human disease, is associated with a low bacterial burden in different organs and late systemic and local overproduction of TNF-alpha by T cells [20].

Gene context of Ehrlichiosis

  • Our data suggest that fatal ehrlichiosis could be a multistep process, where TNF-alpha is not solely responsible for mortality [21].
  • The cytokine response to the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) was assessed in a murine infection model and the role of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), a cytokine that is crucial for host defenses against intracellular pathogens, was investigated by using IFN-gamma-deficient mice [22].
  • Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. sennetsu, but not the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent, colocalize with transferrin receptor and up-regulate transferrin receptor mRNA by activating iron-responsive protein 1 [23].
  • The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if MAP2 is conserved among five geographically divergent strains of C. ruminantium and (ii) to determine if MAP2 homologs are present in Ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine ehrlichiosis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the organism responsible for human monocytic ehrlichiosis [24].
  • Antibodies in the sera of patients with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) commonly recognize a 44-kDa antigen [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ehrlichiosis


  1. The hypervariable region of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 (MSP2) contains multiple immunodominant CD4+ T lymphocyte epitopes that elicit variant-specific proliferative and IFN-gamma responses in MSP2 vaccinates. Brown, W.C., Brayton, K.A., Styer, C.M., Palmer, G.H. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Reactivity of human sera to different strains of granulocytic ehrlichiae in immunodiagnostic assays. Magnarelli, L.A., IJdo, J.W., Dumler, J.S., Heimer, R., Fikrig, E. J. Infect. Dis. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. The early humoral response in human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. IJdo, J.W., Zhang, Y., Hodzic, E., Magnarelli, L.A., Wilson, M.L., Telford, S.R., Barthold, S.W., Fikrig, E. J. Infect. Dis. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum lack genes for lipid A biosynthesis and incorporate cholesterol for their survival. Lin, M., Rikihisa, Y. Infect. Immun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Serodiagnosis of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis by a recombinant HGE-44-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IJdo, J.W., Wu, C., Magnarelli, L.A., Fikrig, E. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Intracellular parasitism by the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis bacterium through the P-selectin ligand, PSGL-1. Herron, M.J., Nelson, C.M., Larson, J., Snapp, K.R., Kansas, G.S., Goodman, J.L. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Leukocyte infection by the granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent is linked to expression of a selectin ligand. Goodman, J.L., Nelson, C.M., Klein, M.B., Hayes, S.F., Weston, B.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Human ehrlichiosis in adults after tick exposure. Diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction. Everett, E.D., Evans, K.A., Henry, R.B., McDonald, G. Ann. Intern. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Immunopathology and ehrlichial propagation are regulated by interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 in a murine model of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Martin, M.E., Caspersen, K., Dumler, J.S. Am. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Multiple p44 genes encoding major outer membrane proteins are expressed in the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent. Zhi, N., Ohashi, N., Rikihisa, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of the newly recognized agent of ehrlichiosis in humans, Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Brouqui, P., Raoult, D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Ehrlichiosis--a disease of animals and humans. McDade, J.E. J. Infect. Dis. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Glycosylation of homologous immunodominant proteins of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis. McBride, J.W., Yu, X.J., Walker, D.H. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Therapeutic effect of doxycycline in experimental subclinical canine monocytic ehrlichiosis: evaluation of a 6-week course. Harrus, S., Waner, T., Aizenberg, I., Bark, H. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Activation of a p44 pseudogene in Anaplasma phagocytophila by bacterial RNA splicing: a novel mechanism for post-transcriptional regulation of a multigene family encoding immunodominant major outer membrane proteins. Zhi, N., Ohashi, N., Rikihisa, Y. Mol. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Nested PCR assay for detection of granulocytic ehrlichiae. Massung, R.F., Slater, K., Owens, J.H., Nicholson, W.L., Mather, T.N., Solberg, V.B., Olson, J.G. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Serial measurements of hematologic counts during the active phase of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Bakken, J.S., Aguero-Rosenfeld, M.E., Tilden, R.L., Wormser, G.P., Horowitz, H.W., Raffalli, J.T., Baluch, M., Riddell, D., Walls, J.J., Dumler, J.S. Clin. Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of an immunoreactive protein from the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Kolbert, C.P., Bruinsma, E.S., Abdulkarim, A.S., Hofmeister, E.K., Tompkins, R.B., Telford, S.R., Mitchell, P.D., Adams-Stich, J., Persing, D.H. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Serological titers of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis associated with gastro-intestinal disorders and serological follow-up on two endemic farms. Farrar, W.P., Bech-Nielsen, S., Gordon, J.C., Reed, S.M., Pretzman, C.I., Kohn, C.W. Vet. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Balancing protective immunity and immunopathology: a unifying model of monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. Ismail, N., Walker, D.H. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 in the pathogenesis of severe murine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis: increased resistance of TNF receptor p55- and p75-deficient mice to fatal ehrlichial infection. Ismail, N., Stevenson, H.L., Walker, D.H. Infect. Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Gamma interferon dominates the murine cytokine response to the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis and helps to control the degree of early rickettsemia. Akkoyunlu, M., Fikrig, E. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. sennetsu, but not the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent, colocalize with transferrin receptor and up-regulate transferrin receptor mRNA by activating iron-responsive protein 1. Barnewall, R.E., Ohashi, N., Rikihisa, Y. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Potential value of major antigenic protein 2 for serological diagnosis of heartwater and related ehrlichial infections. Bowie, M.V., Reddy, G.R., Semu, S.M., Mahan, S.M., Barbet, A.F. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Cloning of the gene encoding the 44-kilodalton antigen of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis and characterization of the humoral response. Ijdo, J.W., Sun, W., Zhang, Y., Magnarelli, L.A., Fikrig, E. Infect. Immun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Molecular cloning and characterization of the 120-kilodalton protein gene of Ehrlichia canis and application of the recombinant 120-kilodalton protein for serodiagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis. Yu, X.J., McBride, J.W., Diaz, C.M., Walker, D.H. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Western blot analysis of sera reactive to human monocytic ehrlichiosis and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agents. Unver, A., Felek, S., Paddock, C.D., Zhi, N., Horowitz, H.W., Wormser, G.P., Cullman, L.C., Rikihisa, Y. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Tissue diagnosis of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in patients with fatal ehrlichiosis by use of immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and polymerase chain reaction. Dawson, J.E., Paddock, C.D., Warner, C.K., Greer, P.W., Bartlett, J.H., Ewing, S.A., Munderloh, U.G., Zaki, S.R. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Validation of chemoprevention of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis with doxycycline. Davoust, B., Keundjian, A., Rous, V., Maurizi, L., Parzy, D. Vet. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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