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MeSH Review

Lyme Disease

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Disease relevance of Lyme Disease


High impact information on Lyme Disease

  • Single-dose doxycycline for the prevention of Lyme disease [6].
  • In cases of suspected Lyme disease, culture of skin lesions, polymerase-chain-reaction testing, or serologic testing was done [7].
  • Successful parenteral penicillin therapy of established Lyme arthritis [8].
  • In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial carried out from 1980 to 1982, 20 patients with established Lyme arthritis were assigned treatment with 2.4 million U of intramuscular benzathine penicillin weekly for three weeks (total, 7.2 million U) and 20 patients received saline [8].
  • Individuals with treatment-resistant Lyme arthritis, but not other forms of arthritis, generated responses to OspA, hLFA-1, and their highly related peptide epitopes [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Lyme Disease


Biological context of Lyme Disease


Anatomical context of Lyme Disease


Gene context of Lyme Disease

  • The preferential induction by B. burgdorferi of IL-1 beta over IL-1ra is an example of excess agonist over antagonist synthesis induced by a microbial pathogen, and may contribute to the destructive lesion of Lyme arthritis [23].
  • Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is a potent inducer of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), a cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis [18].
  • To assess the role of Ncf1 in Lyme arthritis, we introgressed Bb2Bb3 from severely arthritic C3H/He mice onto mildly arthritic C57BL/6 mice [22].
  • Murine Lyme arthritis development mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity [24].
  • These data indicate that TLR2 facilitates the inflammatory events associated with Lyme arthritis [25].
  • Patients with antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis have high synovial fluid levels of proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, especially CXCL9 and IFNgamma, throughout the illness [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lyme Disease


  1. Parvovirus B19 as the cause of a syndrome resembling Lyme arthritis in adults. Mayo, D.R., Vance, D.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Resistance to Lyme disease in decorin-deficient mice. Brown, E.L., Wooten, R.M., Johnson, B.J., Iozzo, R.V., Smith, A., Dolan, M.C., Guo, B.P., Weis, J.J., Höök, M. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Antibodies of patients with Lyme disease to components of the Ixodes dammini spirochete. Barbour, A.G., Burgdorfer, W., Grunwaldt, E., Steere, A.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Comparison of cefuroxime axetil and doxycycline in the treatment of early Lyme disease. Nadelman, R.B., Luger, S.W., Frank, E., Wisniewski, M., Collins, J.J., Wormser, G.P. Ann. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Lyme disease: a growing threat to urban populations. Steere, A.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Single-dose doxycycline for the prevention of Lyme disease. Pontrelli, L., Dattwyler, R., Nachman, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Vaccination against Lyme disease with recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi outer-surface lipoprotein A with adjuvant. Lyme Disease Vaccine Study Group. Steere, A.C., Sikand, V.K., Meurice, F., Parenti, D.L., Fikrig, E., Schoen, R.T., Nowakowski, J., Schmid, C.H., Laukamp, S., Buscarino, C., Krause, D.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Successful parenteral penicillin therapy of established Lyme arthritis. Steere, A.C., Green, J., Schoen, R.T., Taylor, E., Hutchinson, G.J., Rahn, D.W., Malawista, S.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of LFA-1 as a candidate autoantigen in treatment-resistant Lyme arthritis. Gross, D.M., Forsthuber, T., Tary-Lehmann, M., Etling, C., Ito, K., Nagy, Z.A., Field, J.A., Steere, A.C., Huber, B.T. Science (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis is associated with HLA-DR molecules that bind a Borrelia burgdorferi peptide. Steere, A.C., Klitz, W., Drouin, E.E., Falk, B.A., Kwok, W.W., Nepom, G.T., Baxter-Lowe, L.A. J. Exp. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Treatment of long-standing Lyme disease with ceftriaxone. Gasser, R.N., Dusleag, J., Reisinger, E.C., Berglöff, J., Eber, B., Klein, W. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Pulsed high-dose cefotaxime therapy in refractory Lyme borreliosis. Hassler, D., Riedel, K., Zorn, J., Preac-Mursic, V. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Treatment of late Lyme borreliosis with cefoperazone and sulbactam. Gasser, R.N., Reisinger, E.C., Eber, B., Wendelin, I., Pokan, R., Seinost, G., Klein, W. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Treatment of the early manifestations of Lyme disease. Steere, A.C., Hutchinson, G.J., Rahn, D.W., Sigal, L.H., Craft, J.E., DeSanna, E.T., Malawista, S.E. Ann. Intern. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Chronic Lyme arthritis. Clinical and immunogenetic differentiation from rheumatoid arthritis. Steere, A.C., Gibofsky, A., Patarroyo, M.E., Winchester, R.J., Hardin, J.A., Malawista, S.E. Ann. Intern. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  16. Significance of reactive Lyme serology in multiple sclerosis. Coyle, P.K., Krupp, L.B., Doscher, C. Ann. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular mimicry in Lyme arthritis demonstrated at the single cell level: LFA-1 alpha L is a partial agonist for outer surface protein A-reactive T cells. Trollmo, C., Meyer, A.L., Steere, A.C., Hafler, D.A., Huber, B.T. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Balance of synovial fluid IL-1 beta and IL-1 receptor antagonist and recovery from Lyme arthritis. Miller, L.C., Lynch, E.A., Isa, S., Logan, J.W., Dinarello, C.A., Steere, A.C. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Borrelia burgdorferi periplasmic flagella have both skeletal and motility functions. Motaleb, M.A., Corum, L., Bono, J.L., Elias, A.F., Rosa, P., Samuels, D.S., Charon, N.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Susceptibility to experimental Lyme arthritis correlates with KC and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production in joints and requires neutrophil recruitment via CXCR2. Brown, C.R., Blaho, V.A., Loiacono, C.M. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Lyme disease spirochetes induce human and murine interleukin 1 production. Habicht, G.S., Beck, G., Benach, J.L., Coleman, J.L., Leichtling, K.D. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Bb2Bb3 regulation of murine Lyme arthritis is distinct from Ncf1 and independent of the phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. Crandall, H., Ma, Y., Dunn, D.M., Sundsbak, R.S., Zachary, J.F., Olofsson, P., Holmdahl, R., Weis, J.H., Weiss, R.B., Teuscher, C., Weis, J.J. Am. J. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Live Borrelia burgdorferi preferentially activate interleukin-1 beta gene expression and protein synthesis over the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Miller, L.C., Isa, S., Vannier, E., Georgilis, K., Steere, A.C., Dinarello, C.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Murine Lyme arthritis development mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. Anguita, J., Barthold, S.W., Persinski, R., Hedrick, M.N., Huy, C.A., Davis, R.J., Flavell, R.A., Fikrig, E. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Cutting edge: inflammatory signaling by Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins is mediated by toll-like receptor 2. Hirschfeld, M., Kirschning, C.J., Schwandner, R., Wesche, H., Weis, J.H., Wooten, R.M., Weis, J.J. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. High levels of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines in joint fluid and synovial tissue throughout the course of antibiotic-refractory lyme arthritis. Shin, J.J., Glickstein, L.J., Steere, A.C. Arthritis Rheum. (2007) [Pubmed]
  27. A flagella-less mutant of Borrelia burgdorferi. Structural, molecular, and in vitro functional characterization. Sadziene, A., Thomas, D.D., Bundoc, V.G., Holt, S.C., Barbour, A.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Chlamydia and Borrelia DNA in synovial fluid of patients with early undifferentiated oligoarthritis: results of a prospective study. Schnarr, S., Putschky, N., Jendro, M.C., Zeidler, H., Hammer, M., Kuipers, J.G., Wollenhaupt, J. Arthritis Rheum. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Treatment of early Lyme disease. Massarotti, E.M., Luger, S.W., Rahn, D.W., Messner, R.P., Wong, J.B., Johnson, R.C., Steere, A.C. Am. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Lyme disease: clinical features, classification, and epidemiology in the upper midwest. Agger, W., Case, K.L., Bryant, G.L., Callister, S.M. Medicine (Baltimore) (1991) [Pubmed]
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